how to make barcodes in excel free Figure 2338 Flow control scenario in Software

Drawing Code 3 of 9 in Software Figure 2338 Flow control scenario

Figure 2338 Flow control scenario
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Sender
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TSN: 1
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cumTSN ~ winSize 2000 lastACK 1000 bytes
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cumTSN winSize lastACK
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1000 bytes
r-----I
cumTSN ~ winSize 0 [astACK
ACK: 2
rwnd:
SACK
:ess writes i and 6
===I~ ~wnd_
@]~~0
curTSN 0 0
cumTSN~ ~ winSize 2000
SACK
l - - -~L::A:::C::::K~: 2::-_ _rwn_ _:2_0_0_0 _ d
znTranslt
[astACK
Process reads 1 and 2
Time
Time
SECTION 234
SCTP
At the receiver site, the queue is empty at the beginning After the first data chunk is received, there is one message in the queue and the value of cumTSN is 1 The value of winSize is reduced to 1000 because the first message occupies 1000 bytes After the second data chunk is received, the value of window size is a and cumTSN is 2 Now, as we will see, the receiver is required to send a SACK with cumulative TSN of 2 After the first SACK was sent, the process reads the two messages, which means that there is now room in the queue; the receiver advertises the situation with a SACK to allow the sender to send more data chunks The remaining events are not shown in the figure
Error Control
SCTP, like TCP, is a reliable transport layer protocol It uses a SACK chunk to report the state of the receiver buffer to the sender Each implementation uses a different set of entities and timers for the receiver and sender sites We use a very simple design to convey the concept to the reader
Receiver Site In our design, the receiver stores all chunks that have arrived in its queue including the out-of-order ones However, it leaves spaces for any missing chunks It discards duplicate messages, but keeps track of them for reports to the sender Figure 2339 shows a typical design for the receiver site and the state of the receiving queue at a particular point in time
Figure 2339 Error control, receiver site
Duplicate OutOfOrder
cumTSN winSize lastACK
The last acknowledgment sent was for data chunk 20 The available window size is 1000 bytes Chunks 21 to 23 have been received in order The first out-of-order block contains chunks 26 to 28 The second out-of-order block contains chunks 31 to 34 A variable holds the value of cumTSN An array of variables keeps track of the beginning and the end of each block that is out of order An array of variables holds the duplicate chunks received Note that there is no need for storing duplicate chunks in the queue; they will be discarded The figure also shows the SACK chunk that will be sent to
PROCESS-TO-PROCESS DELNERY: UDp, TCp, AND SCTP
report the state of the receiver to the sender The TSN numbers for out-of-order chunks are relative (offsets) to the cumulative TSN Sender Site At the sender site, our design demands two buffers (queues): a sending queue and a retransmission queue We also use the three variables rwnd, inTransit, and curTSN as described in the previous section Figure 2340 shows a typical design
Figure 2340 Error control, sender site
From process Outstanding chunks
Sending queue
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curTSN
rwnd
inTransit
Add when timer expires or three SACKs are received
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Retransmission queue
The sending queue holds chunks 23 to 40 The chunks 23 to 36 have already been sent, but not acknowledged; they are outstanding chunks The curTSN points to the next chunk to be sent (37) We assume that each chunk is 100 bytes, which means that 1400 bytes of data (chunks 23 to 36) is in transit The sender at this moment has a retransmission queue When a packet is sent, a retransmission timer starts for that packet (all data chunks in that packet) Some implementations use one single timer for the entire association, but we continue with our tradition of one timer for each packet for simplification When the retransmission timer for a packet expires, or four duplicate SACKs arrive that declare a packet as missing (fast retransmission was discussed in 12), the chunks in that packet are moved to the retransmission queue to be resent These chunks are considered lost, rather than outstanding The chunks in the retransmission queue have priority In other words, the next time the sender sends a chunk, it would be chunk 21 from the retransmission queue Sending Data Chunks An end can send a data packet whenever there are data chunks in the sending queue with a TSN greater than or equal to curTSN or if there are data chunks in the retransmission queue The retransmission queue has priority However, the total size of the data chunk or chunks included in the packet must not exceed rwnd - inTransit, and the total size of the frame must not exceed the MTU size as we discussed in previous sections
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