how to make barcodes in excel 2003 CONGESTION CONTROL AND QUALITY OF SERVICE in Software

Creation Code 3/9 in Software CONGESTION CONTROL AND QUALITY OF SERVICE

CONGESTION CONTROL AND QUALITY OF SERVICE
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BECN
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Direction of congestion
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Frame Relay network
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higher level, the receiver can delay the acknowledgment, thus forcing the sender to slow down Figure 2413 shows the use ofFECN
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FECN
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When two endpoints are communicating using a Frame Relay network, four situations may occur with regard to congestion Figure 2414 shows these four situations and the values of FECN and BECN
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Four cases ofcongestion
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SECTION 245
QUALITY OF SERVICE
QUALITY OF SERVICE
Quality of service (QoS) is an internetworking issue that has been discussed more than defined We can informally define quality of service as something a flow seeks to attain
Flow Characteristics
Traditionally, four types of characteristics are attributed to a flow: reliability, delay, jitter, and bandwidth, as shown in Figure 2415 Figure 2415
Flow characteristics
Reliability
Reliability is a characteristic that a flow needs Lack of reliability means losing a packet or acknowledgment, which entails retransmission However, the sensitivity of application programs to reliability is not the same For example, it is more important that electronic mail, file transfer, and Internet access have reliable transmissions than telephony or audio conferencing
Delay
Source-to-destination delay is another flow characteristic Again applications can tolerate delay in different degrees In this case, telephony, audio conferencing, video conferencing, and remote log-in need minimum delay, while delay in file transfer or e-mail is less important
Jitter
Jitter is the variation in delay for packets belonging to the same flow For example, if four packets depart at times 0, 1, 2, 3 and arrive at 20, 21, 22, 23, all have the same delay, 20 units of time On the other hand, if the above four packets arrive at 21, 23, 21, and 28, they will have different delays: 21,22, 19, and 24 For applications such as audio and video, the first case is completely acceptable; the second case is not For these applications, it does not matter if the packets arrive with a short or long delay as long as the delay is the same for all packets For this application, the second case is not acceptable Jitter is defined as the variation in the packet delay High jitter means the difference between delays is large; low jitter means the variation is small In 29, we show how multimedia communication deals with jitter If the jitter is high, some action is needed in order to use the received data
CONGEST/ON CONTROL AND QUALITY OF SERVICE
Bandwidth
Different applications need different bandwidths In video conferencing we need to send millions of bits per second to refresh a color screen while the total number of bits in an e-mail may not reach even a million
Flow Classes
Based on the flow characteristics, we can classify flows into groups, with each group having similar levels of characteristics This categorization is not formal or universal; some protocols such as ATM have defined classes, as we will see later
lECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE QoS
In Section 245 we tried to define QoS in terms of its characteristics In this section, we discuss some techniques that can be used to improve the quality of service We briefly discuss four common methods: scheduling, traffic shaping, admission control, and resource reservation
Scheduling
Packets from different flows arrive at a switch or router for processing A good scheduling technique treats the different flows in a fair and appropriate manner Several scheduling techniques are designed to improve the quality of service We discuss three of them here: FIFO queuing, priority queuing, and weighted fair queuing
FIFO Queuing
In first-in, first-out (FIFO) queuing, packets wait in a buffer (queue) until the node (router or switch) is ready to process them If the average arrival rate is higher than the average processing rate, the queue will fill up and new packets will be discarded A FIFO queue is familiar to those who have had to wait for a bus at a bus stop Figure 2416 shows a conceptual view of a FIFO queue
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