how to make barcodes in excel 2003 Figure 2416 FIFO queue in Software

Generator Code 3/9 in Software Figure 2416 FIFO queue

Figure 2416 FIFO queue
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Priority Queuing
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In priority queuing, packets are first assigned to a priority class Each priority class has its own queue The packets in the highest-priority queue are processed first Packets in the lowest-priority queue are processed last Note that the system does not stop serving
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TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE QoS
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a queue until it is empty Figure 2417 shows priority queuing with two priority levels (for simplicity) Figure 2417
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The switch turns to the other queue when the current one is empty
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A priority queue can provide better QoS than the FIFO queue because higherpriority traffic, such as multimedia, can reach the destination with less delay However, there is a potential drawback If there is a continuous flow in a high-priority queue, the packets in the lower-priority queues will never have a chance to be processed This is a condition called starvation
Weighted Fair Queuing
A better scheduling method is weighted fair queuing In this technique, the packets are still assigned to different classes and admitted to different queues The queues, however, are weighted based on the priority of the queues; higher priority means a higher weight The system processes packets in each queue in a round-robin fashion with the number of packets selected from each queue based on the corresponding weight For example, if the weights are 3, 2, and 1, three packets are processed from the first queue, two from the second queue, and one from the third queue If the system does not impose priority on the classes, all weights can be equaL In this way, we have fair queuing with priority Figure 2418 shows the technique with three classes
Traffic Shaping
Traffic shaping is a mechanism to control the amount and the rate of the traffic sent to the network Two techniques can shape traffic: leaky bucket and token bucket
Leaky Bucket
If a bucket has a small hole at the bottom, the water leaks from the bucket at a constant rate as long as there is water in the bucket The rate at which the water leaks does not depend on the rate at which the water is input to the bucket unless the bucket is empty The input rate can vary, but the output rate remains constant Similarly, in networking, a technique called leaky bucket can smooth out bursty traffic Bursty chunks are stored in the bucket and sent out at an average rate Figure 2419 shows a leaky bucket and its effects
CONGESTION CONTROL AND QUALITY OF SERVICE
Weighted fair queuing
The tuming switch selects 3 packets from first queue, 1 - - - - - - , then 2 packets from the second ' - - - ' - - - ' - - ' - ' --LJ queue, then I packet from the third queue The cycle repeats
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Figure 2419 Leaky bucket
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In the figure, we assume that the network has committed a bandwidth of 3 Mbps for a host The use of the leaky bucket shapes the input traffic to make it conform to this commitment In Figure 2419 the host sends a burst of data at a rate of 12 Mbps for 2 s, for a total of 24 Mbits of data The host is silent for 5 s and then sends data at a rate of 2 Mbps for 3 s, for a total of 6 Mbits of data In all, the host has sent 30 Mbits of data in lOs The leaky bucket smooths the traffic by sending out data at a rate of 3 Mbps during the same 10 s Without the leaky bucket, the beginning burst may have hurt the network by consuming more bandwidth than is set aside for this host We can also see that the leaky bucket may prevent congestion As an analogy, consider the freeway during rush hour (bursty traffic) If, instead, commuters could stagger their working hours, congestion o'n our freeways could be avoided A simple leaky bucket implementation is shown in Figure 2420 A FIFO queue holds the packets If the traffic consists of fixed-size packets (eg, cells in ATM
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