how to make barcode in excel sheet Digitizing Video in Software

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Digitizing Video
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A video consists of a sequence of frames If the frames are displayed on the screen fast enough, we get an impression of motion The reason is that our eyes cannot distinguish the rapidly flashing frames as individual ones There is no standard number of frames per second; in North America 25 frames per second is common However, to avoid a
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AUDIO AND VIDEO COMPRESSION
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condition known as flickering, a frame needs to be refreshed The TV industry repaints each frame twice This means 50 frames need to be sent, or if there is memory at the sender site, 25 frames with each frame repainted from the memory Each frame is divided into small grids, called picture elements or pixels For blackand-white TV, each 8-bit pixel represents one of 256 different gray levels For a color TV, each pixel is 24 bits, with 8 bits for each primary color (red, green, and blue) We can calculate the number of bits in 1 s for a specific resolution In the lowest resolution a color frame is made of 1024 x 768 pixels This means that we need 2 x25 x I024x768x 24=944 Mbps This data rate needs a very high data rate technology such as SONET To send video using lower-rate technologies, we need to compress the video
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Compresswn is needed to send video over the Internet
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To send audio or video over the Internet requires compression In this section, we discuss audio compression first and then video compression
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Audio compression can be used for speech or music For speech, we need to compress a 64-kHz digitized signal; for music, we need to compress a 141 I-MHz signal Two categories of techniques are used for audio compression: predictive encoding and perceptual encoding
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Predictive Encoding
In predictive encoding, the differences between the samples are encoded instead of encoding all the sampled values This type of compression is normally used for speech Several standards have been defined such as GSM (13 kbps), G729 (8 kbps), and G7233 (64 or 53 kbps) Detailed discussions of these techniques are beyond the scope of this book
Perceptual Encoding: MP3
The most common compression technique that is used to create CD-quality audio is based on the perceptual encoding technique As we mentioned before, this type of audio needs at least 1411 Mbps; this cannot be sent over the Int~rnet without compression MP3 (MPEG audio layer 3), a part of the MPEG standard (discussed in the video compression section), uses this technique Perceptual encoding is based on the science of psychoacoustics, which is the study of how people perceive sound The idea is based on flaws in our auditory system: Some sounds can mask other sounds Masking can happen in frequency and time In
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frequency masking, a loud sound in a frequency range can partially or totally mask a softer sound in another frequency range For example, we cannot hear what our dance partner says in a room where a loud heavy metal band is performing In temporal masking, a loud sound can numb our ears for a short time even after the sound has stopped MP3 uses these two phenomena, frequency and temporal masking, to compress audio signals The technique analyzes and divides the spectrum into several groups Zero bits are allocated to the frequency ranges that are totally masked A small number of bits are allocated to the frequency ranges that are partially masked A larger number of bits are allocated to the frequency ranges that are not masked MP3 produces three data rates: 96 kbps, 128 kbps, and 160 kbps The rate is based on the range of the frequencies in the original analog audio
Video Compression
As we mentioned before, video is composed of multiple frames Each frame is one image We can compress video by first compressing images Two standards are prevalent in the market Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is used to compress images Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is used to compress video We briefly discuss JPEG and then MPEG
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