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attack more difficult If the original password is 6 digits and the salt is 4 digits, then hashing is
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done over a lO-digit value This means that Eve now needs to make a list of 10 million items and create a hash for each of them The list of hashes has 10 million entries and the comparison takes much longer Salting is very effective if the salt is a very long random number The UNIX operating system uses a variation of this method In another approach, two identification techniques are combined A good example of this type of authentication is the use of an ATM card with a PIN (personal identification number) The card belongs to the category "something possessed" and the PIN belongs to the category "something known" The PIN is actually a password that enhances the security of the card If the card is stolen, it cannot be used unless the PIN is known The PIN, however, is traditionally very short so it is easily remembered by the owner This makes it vulnerable to the guessing type of attack
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In this type of scheme, a password is used only once It is called the one-time password A one-time password makes eavesdropping and stealing useless However, this approach is very complex, and we leave its discussion to some specialized books
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In password authentication, the claimant proves her identity by demonstrating that she knows a secret, the password However, since the claimant reveals this secret, the secret is susceptible to interception by the adversary In challenge-response authentication, the claimant proves that she knows a secret without revealing it In other words, the claimant does not reveal the secret to the verifier; the verifier either has it or finds it
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In challenge-response authentication, the claimant proves that she knows a secret without revealing it
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The challenge is a time-varying value such as a random number or a timestamp which is sent by the verifier The claimant applies a function to the challenge and sends the result, called a response, to the verifier The response shows that the claimant knows the secret
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The challenge is a time-varying value sent by the verifier; the response is the result of a function applied on the chanenge
Using a Symmetric-Key Cipher
In the first category, the challenge-response authentication is achieved using symmetrickey encryption The secret here is the shared secret key, known by both the claimant and the verifier The function is the encrypting algorithm applied on the challenge Figure 3114 shows one approach The first message is not part of challenge-response, it only informs the verifier that the claimant wants to be challenged The second message is the challenge And R B is the nonce randomly chosen by the verifier to challenge the claimant The claimant encrypts the nonce using the shared secret key known only to the claimant and the verifier and sends the result to the verifier The verifier decrypts
SECTION 316
ENTITY AUTHENTICATION
Challenge/response authentication using a nonce
Alice (user) (server)
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the message If the nonce obtained from decryption is the same as the one sent by the verifier, Alice is granted access Note that in this process, the claimant and the verifier need to keep the symmetric key used in the process secret The verifier must also keep the value of the nonce for claimant identification until the response is returned The reader may have noticed that use of a nonce prevents a replay of the third message by Eve Eve cannot replay the third message and pretend that it is a new request for authentication by Alice because once Bob receives the response, the value of RB is not valid any more The next time a new value is used In the second approach, the time-varying value is a timestamp, which obviously changes with time In this approach the challenge message is the current time sent from the verifier to the claimant However, this supposes that the client and the server clocks are synchronized; the claimant knows the current time This means that there is no need for the challenge message The first and third messages can be combined The result is that authentication can be done using one message, the response to an implicit challenge, the current time Figure 3115 shows the approach
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