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For more details about the subjects discussed in this chapter, we recommend the following books and sites The items in brackets [] refer to the reference list at the end of the text
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Several books are dedicated to network security, such as [PHS02], [Bis03], and [SalO3]
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hashed message authentication code (HMAC) identification integrity Kerberos key distribution center (KDC) message authentication message authentication code (MAC) message confidentiality or privacy message digest message integrity
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authentication server (AS) certification authority (CA) challenge-response authentication claimant dictionary attack digital signature eavesdropping entity authentication fingerprint fixed password hash function
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message nonrepudiation modification detection code (MDC) nonce nonrepudiation one-time password one-wayness password privacy public-key infrastructure (PKI) salting
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session key
SHA-I signature scheme signing algorithm strong collision ticket ticket-granting server (TGS) verifier verifying algorithm weak collision X509
SUMMARY
D Cryptography can provide five services Four of these are related to the message
exchange between Alice and Bob The fifth is related to the entity trying to access a system for using its resources
Message confidentiality means that the sender and the receiver expect privacy
D Message integrity means that the data must arrive at the receiver exactly as sent D Message authentication means that the receiver is ensured that the message is coming
from the intended sender, not an imposter
D Nonrepudiation means that a sender must not be able to deny sending a message
that he sent
D Entity authentication means to prove the identity of the entity that tries to access
the system's resources
D A message digest can be used to preserve the integrity of a document or a message
A hash function creates a message digest out of a message
D A hash function must meet three criteria: one-wayness, resistance to weak collision,
and resistance to strong collision
D A keyless message digest is used as a modification detection code (MDC) It guarantees the integrity of the message To authenticate the data origin, one needs a message authentication code (MAC)
D MACs are keyed hash functions that create a compressed digest from the message
added with the key The method has the same basis as encryption algorithms
A digital signature scheme can provide the same services provided by a conventional signature A conventional signature is included in the document; a digital signature is a separate entity Digital signature cannot provide confidentiality for the message If confidentiality is needed, a cryptosystem must be applied over the scheme
D Digital signature provides message integrity, authentication, and nonrepudiation
NETWORK SECURiTY
o o o o
D D D
A digital signature needs an asymmetric-key system In entity authentication, a claimant proves her identity to the verifier by using one of the three kinds of witnesses: something known, something possessed, or something inherent In password-based authentication, the claimant uses a string of characters as something she knows Password-based authentication can be divided into two broad categories: fixed and one-time In Challenge-response authentication, the claimant proves that she knows a secret without actually sending it Challenge-response authentication can be divided into four categories: symmetrickey ciphers, keyed-hash functions, asymmetric-key ciphers, and digital signature A key distribution center (KDC) is a trusted third party that assigns a symmetric key to two parties KDC creates a secret key only between a member and the center The secret key between members needs to be created as a session key when two members contact KDC Kerberos is a popular session key creator protocol that requires an authentication server and a ticket-granting server A certification authority (CA) is a federal or state organization that binds a public key to an entity and issues a certificate A public-key infrastructure (PKI) is a hierarchical system to answer queries about key certification
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
PRACTICE SET
Review Questions
What is a nonce What is the N 2 problem Name a protocol that uses a KDC for user authentication What is the purpose of the Kerberos authentication server What is the purpose of the Kerberos ticket-granting server What is the purpose of X,S09 What is a certification authority What are some advantages and disadvantages of using long passwords We discussed fixed and one-time passwords as two extremes What about frequently changed passwords How do you think this scheme can be implemented What are the advantages and disadvantages 10 How can a system prevent a guessing attack on a password How can a bank prevent PIN guessing if someone has found or stolen a bank card and tried to use it
SECTION 3111
PRACTICE SET
Exercises
11 A message is made of 10 numbers between 00 and 99 A hash algorithm creates a digest out of this message by adding all numbers modulo 100 The resulting digest is a number between 00 and 99 Does this algorithm meet the first criterion of a hash algorithm Does it meet the second criterion Does it meet the third criterion 12 A message is made of 100 characters A hash algorithm creates a digest out of this message by choosing characters 1, 11,21, , and 91 The resulting digest has 10 characters Does this algorithm meet the first criterion of a hash algorithm Does it meet the second criterion Does it meet the third criterion 13 A hash algorithm creates a digest of N bits How many different digests can be created from this algorithm 14 At a party, which is more probable, a person with a birthday on a particular day or two (or more) persons having the same birthday 15 How is the solution to Exercise 14 related to the second and third criteria of a hashing function 16 Which one is more feasible, a fixed-size digest or a variable-size digest Explain your answer 17 A message is 20,000 characters We are using a digest of this message using SHA-l After creating the digest, we decided to change the last 10 characters Can we say how many bits in the digest will be changed 18 Are the processes of creating a MAC and of signing a hash the same What are the differences 19 When a person uses a money machine to get cash, is this a message authentication, an entity authentication, or both 20 Change Figure 3114 to provide two-way authentication (Alice for Bob and Bob for Alice) 21 Change Figure 3116 to provide two-way authentication (Alice for Bob and Bob for Alice) 22 Change Figure 3117 to provide two-way authentication (Alice for Bob and Bob for Alice) 23 Change Figure 3118 to provide two-way authentication (Alice for Bob and Bob for Alice) 24 In a university, a student needs to encrypt her password (with a unique symmetric key) before sending it when she logs in Does encryption protect the university or the student Explain your answer 25 In Exercise 24, does it help if the student appends a timestamp to the password before encryption Explain your answer 26 In Exercise 24, does it help if a student has a list of passwords and uses a different one each time 27 In Figure 3120, what happens if KDC is down 28 In Figure 3121, what happens if the AS is down What happens if the TGS is down What happens if the main server is down 29 In Figure 3126, what happens if the trusted center is down
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