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The bipolar scheme was developed as an alternative to NRZ The bipolar scheme has the same signal rate as NRZ, but there is no DC component The NRZ scheme has most of its energy concentrated near zero frequency, which makes it unsuitable for transmission over channels with poor performance around this frequency The concentration of the energy in bipolar encoding is around frequency N12 Figure 49 shows the typical energy concentration for a bipolar scheme
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One may ask why we do not have DC component in bipolar encoding We can answer this question by using the Fourier transform, but we can also think about it intuitively If we have a long sequence of 1s, the voltage level alternates between positive and negative; it is not constant Therefore, there is no DC component For a long sequence of Os, the voltage remains constant, but its amplitude is zero, which is the same as having no DC component In other words, a sequence that creates a constant zero voltage does not have a DC component AMI is commonly used for long-distance communication, but it has a synchronization problem when a long sequence of Os is present in the data Later in the chapter, we will see how a scrambling technique can solve this problem
Multilevel Schemes
The desire to increase the data speed or decrease the required bandwidth has resulted in the creation of many schemes The goal is to increase the number of bits per baud by encoding a pattern of m data elements into a pattern of n signal elements We only have two types of data elements (Os and Is), which means that a group of m data elements can produce a combination of 2m data patterns We can have different types of signal elements by allowing different signal levels If we have L different levels, then we can produce L n combinations of signal patterns If 2 m = L n, then each data pattern is encoded into one signal pattern If 2m < L n , data patterns occupy only a subset of signal patterns The subset can be carefully designed to prevent baseline wandering, to provide synchronization, and to detect errors that occurred during data transmission Data encoding is not possible if 2 m > L n because some of the data patterns cannot be encoded The code designers have classified these types of coding as mBnL, where m is the length of the binary pattern, B means binary data, n is the length of the signal pattern, and L is the number of levels in the signaling A letter is often used in place of L: B (binary) for L = 2, T (ternary) for L = 3, and Q (quaternary) for L = 4 Note that the first two letters define the data pattern, and the second two define the signal pattern
In mBnL schemes, a pattern of m data elements is encoded as a pattern of n signal elements in which 2m ::::; Ln
2BIQ The first mBnL scheme we discuss, two binary, one quaternary (2BIQ), uses data patterns of size 2 and encodes the 2-bit patterns as one signal element belonging to a four-level signal In this type of encoding m = 2, n = 1, and L = 4 (quatemary) Figure 410 shows an example of a 2B 1Q signal The average signal rate of 2BlQ is S = N/4 This means that using 2BIQ, we can send data 2 times faster than by using NRZ-L However, 2B lQ uses four different signal levels, which means the receiver has to discern four different thresholds The reduced bandwidth comes with a price There are no redundant signal patterns in this scheme because 22 = 4 1 As we will see in 9, 2BIQ is used in DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) technology to provide a high-speed connection to the Internet by using subscriber telephone lines
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