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Figure 626 also shows a major difference between slots in synchronous TDM and statistical TDM An output slot in synchronous TDM is totally occupied by data; in statistical TDM, a slot needs to carry data as well as the address of the destination In synchronous TDM, there is no need for addressing; synchronization and preassigned relationships between the inputs and outputs serve as an address We know, for example, that input 1 always goes to input 2 If the multiplexer and the demultiplexer are synchronized, this is guaranteed In statistical multiplexing, there is no fixed relationship between the inputs and outputs because there are no preassigned or reserved slots We need to include the address of the receiver inside each slot to show where it is to be delivered The addressing in its simplest form can be n bits to define N different output lines with n = 10g2 N For example, for eight different output lines, we need a 3-bit address
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BANDWIDTH UTILIZATION: MULTIPLEXING AND SPREADING
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TDM slot comparison
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a Synchronous TDM
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b Statistical TDM
Slot Size
Since a slot carries both data and an address in statistical TDM, the ratio of the data size to address size must be reasonable to make transmission efficient For example, it would be inefficient to send 1 bit per slot as data when the address is 3 bits This would mean an overhead of 300 percent In statistical TDM, a block of data is usually many bytes while the address is just a few bytes
No Synchronization Bit
There is another difference between synchronous and statistical TDM, but this time it is at the frame level The frames in statistical TDM need not be synchronized, so we do not need synchronization bits
Bandwidth
In statistical TDM, the capacity of the link is normally less than the sum of the capacities of each channel The designers of statistical TDM define the capacity of the link based on the statistics of the load for each channel If on average only x percent of the input slots are filled, the capacity of the link reflects this Of course, during peak times, some slots need to wait
SPREAD SPECTRUM
Multiplexing combines signals from several sources to achieve bandwidth efficiency; the available bandwidth of a link is divided between the sources In spread spectrum (88), we also combine signals from different sources to fit into a larger bandwidth, but our goals
SECTION 62
SPREAD SPECTRUM
are somewhat different Spread spectrum is designed to be used in wireless applications (LANs and WANs) In these types of applications, we have some concerns that outweigh bandwidth efficiency In wireless applications, all stations use air (or a vacuum) as the medium for communication Stations must be able to share this medium without interception by an eavesdropper and without being subject to jamming from a malicious intruder (in military operations, for example) To achieve these goals, spread spectrum techniques add redundancy; they spread the original spectrum needed for each station If the required bandwidth for each station is B, spread spectrum expands it to Bss ' such that Bss B The expanded bandwidth allows the source to wrap its message in a protective envelope for a more secure transmission An analogy is the sending of a delicate, expensive gift We can insert the gift in a special box to prevent it from being damaged during transportation, and we can use a superior delivery service to guarantee the safety of the package Figure 627 shows the idea of spread spectrum Spread spectrum achieves its goals through two principles: 1 The bandwidth allocated to each station needs to be, by far, larger than what is needed This allows redundancy 2 The expanding of the original bandwidth B to the bandwidth Bss must be done by a process that is independent of the original signal In other words, the spreading process occurs after the signal is created by the source
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