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One way to measure the performance of twisted-pair cable is to compare attenuation versus frequency and distance A twisted-pair cable can pass a wide range of frequencies However, Figure 76 shows that with increasing frequency, the attenuation, measured in decibels per kilometer (dB/km), sharply increases with frequencies above 100 kHz Note that gauge is a measure of the thickness of the wire
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20 18 16 ]' 14
Gauge
22 24 26
Diameter (inches) 00403 002320 002010 00159
26 gauge
iIi ::3- 12
'" :I
<:: <::
18 gauge
E::::::::-----10
!(kHz)
Applications
Twisted-pair cables are used in telephone lines to provide voice and data channels The local loop-the line that connects subscribers to the central telephone office---commonly consists of unshielded twisted-pair cables We discuss telephone networks in 9 The DSL lines that are used by the telephone companies to provide high-data-rate connections also use the high-bandwidth capability of unshielded twisted-pair cables We discuss DSL technology in 9 Local-area networks, such as lOBase-T and lOOBase-T, also use twisted-pair cables We discuss these networks in 13
Coaxial Cable
Coaxial cable (or coax) carries signals of higher frequency ranges than those in twistedpair cable, in part because the two media are constructed quite differently Instead of
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having two wires, coax has a central core conductor of solid or stranded wire (usually copper) enclosed in an insulating sheath, which is, in turn, encased in an outer conductor of metal foil, braid, or a combination of the two The outer metallic wrapping serves both as a shield against noise and as the second conductor, which completes the circuit This outer conductor is also enclosed in an insulating sheath, and the whole cable is protected by a plastic cover (see Figure 77)
Coaxial cable
Insulator
Outer conductor (shield)
Coaxial Cable Standards
Coaxial cables are categorized by their radio government (RG) ratings Each RG number denotes a unique set of physical specifications, including the wire gauge of the inner conductor, the thickness and type of the inner insulator, the construction of the shield, and the size and type of the outer casing Each cable defined by an RG rating is adapted for a specialized function, as shown in Table 72 Table 72
Category Categories of coaxial cables Impedance Use
RG-59 RG-58 RG-ll
75 n 50n 50n
Cable TV Thin Ethernet Thick Ethernet
Coaxial Cable Connectors
To connect coaxial cable to devices, we need coaxial connectors The most common type of connector used today is the Bayone-Neill-Concelman (BNe), connector Figure 78 shows three popular types of these connectors: the BNC connector, the BNC T connector, and the BNC terminator The BNC connector is used to connect the end of the cable to a device, such as a TV set The BNC T connector is used in Ethernet networks (see 13) to branch out to a connection to a computer or other device The BNC terminator is used at the end of the cable to prevent the reflection of the signal
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- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ -----Figure 78 BNC connectors
BNCT
Cable
BNC connector
50-a
BNe terminator
Ground wire
---------------------------~-
Performance
As we did with twisted-pair cables, we can measure the performance of a coaxial cable We notice in Figure 79 that the attenuation is much higher in coaxial cables than in twisted-pair cable In other words, although coaxial cable has a much higher bandwidth, the signal weakens rapidly and requires the frequent use of repeaters
Coaxial cable peiformance
35 30
07129 mm !
:2:
25 20 15
12/44 mm
;::l
10 j(kHz)
Applications
Coaxial cable was widely used in analog telephone networks where a single coaxial network could carry 10,000 voice signals Later it was used in digital telephone networks where a single coaxial cable could carry digital data up to 600 Mbps However, coaxial cable in telephone networks has largely been replaced today with fiber-optic cable Cable TV networks (see 9) also use coaxial cables In the traditional cable TV network, the entire network used coaxial cable Later, however, cable TV providers
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