code 128 excel 2010 MLS-SE and MLS-RP Interaction in Objective-C

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MLS-SE and MLS-RP Interaction
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So how do the MLS-SEs know about the MLS-RPs in the first place Well, it turns out that you must manually add MLS-RPs once to a given MLS-SE However, all MLS-RPs will also send advertisements out at regular intervals (every 15 seconds, by default) using the CGMP multicast address These messages, known as Multilayer Switching Protocol (MLSP) messages, contain information about the MLS-RPs' known routes, MAC address information, and access lists This information allows the MLS-SEs to automatically learn all of the important details they need (like MAC addresses and flow masks) from the MLS-RPs The MLS-SEs in the network listen to this address; but all non-MLS switches simply forward the information, so it doesn't take up processor time on switches that do not need the information MLSP is also the enabler for MLS, which means that for MLS to work properly, MLSP must be enabled on the MLSRPs The catch is that all of the MLS-SEs and all of the MLS-RPs that are going to know about each other must be in the same VTP domain Note You can sort of get around the VTP domain issue by not making your switches members of any VTP domain If the VTP domain field on your MLS-SEs is blank, you do not have to configure a VTP domain on the MLS-RPs (Their VTP domain will be blank as well) Also, access lists need special care in MLS First, a brief explanation of access lists is in order (For a more thorough discussion, please refer to 27) Access lists (or ACLs, for access control lists) are used to allow or deny access based on certain criteria The following list describes the four types of ACLs:
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Standard This type filters (allows or denies) packets based only on source address or addresses Extended This type filters based on protocol, source and destination IP address(es), port numbers, and other parameters Dynamic (lock and key) This type allows you to provide access lists that are specific to individual users, which requires that the user log in to the router or firewall before access is allowed This method of access is a bit cumbersome Reflexive This type filters based on information similar to an extended access list, but reflexive access lists allow or deny connections based on session information This
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allows the firewall to configure temporary access list entries automatically for instance, to allow any return traffic from a session established by an internal client The real issue with ACLs is that they are applied on the MLS-RP; so if a packet is MLSswitched by the MLS-SE, it will never see the ACL and it may be improperly allowed This problem is best shown with an example In Figure 20-7, the MLS-RP has an outbound ACL set to allow FTP access to host 10111 but deny all other traffic
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Figure 20-7: The network configuration for the MLS ACL example Host 19216811 sends an FTP packet to 10111 The MLS-SE forwards this packet to the MLS-RP because it has no entry in its MLS cache for the destination The MLS-RP checks the ACL and allows the packet, forwarding it back to the MLS-SE The MLS-SE adds the entry to its MLS cache and forwards the packet Now, if host 19216811 sends a Telnet packet to 10111, it will be allowed because the MLS-SE examines the MLS cache for the destination IP (and only the destination IP, regardless of the flow mask used), and it will match Therefore, the packet will never be forwarded to the MLS-RP, which means the ACL will not be enforced You can use flow masks to help reduce this problem (although not the way you would think) Whenever a standard ACL is configured on an MLS-RP, it sets its flow mask to source destination IP Whenever an extended ACL is set on the MLS-RP, it changes its mask to IP flow The MLS-SEs in the environment can use only one flow mask, and they always use the most specific flow mask configured on any of its configured MLS-RPs, so the MLS-SE will change its flow mask to the most specific one encountered Note Some switches (the 6000 series included) do not support external MLS-RPs, and therefore do not use MLSP For this reason, an ACL change on the MLS-RP in these switches will not change the flow mask automatically If the flow mask is changed, the change causes all entries in the MLS cache to be removed This functionality causes all packets to be sent to the MLS-RP for processing The basic idea is that if the communication is denied, the packet will never be forwarded back to the MLSSE; it will simply be dropped Therefore, the MLS-SE should not add the denied entry to its MLS cache, and the communication will be (correctly) denied This process breaks down in the previous example Because the MLS-SE does not use the flow mask to help it match flows
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(it always matches based only on the destination IP), if a client is allowed access using one protocol but denied access for other protocols, the issue may arise where the client is incorrectly allowed access to the remote host Note The 6000 series with the Policy Feature Card (PFC) does not suffer from the same problem with incorrectly allowing access A few additional restrictions apply when using ACLs with MLS:
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Only standard and extended ACLs may be used (Dynamic and reflexive ACLs are not supported) ACLs may be set only on outbound interfaces on the MLS-RP Inbound access lists are not supported Note You can use an inbound access list on the 6000 series by using the command mls rp ip input-acl in IOS 120(7)XE or later
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A few other restrictions apply on MLS, such as hardware and software requirements From the switching side, the requirements are as follows:
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A Catalyst 5000/5500 series switch with o Supervisor Engine 41(1) or later o Supervisor Engine II G or III G, or Supervisor Engine III or III F with a NetFlow Feature Card (NFFC) or NFFC II A Catalyst 6000/6500 series switch with a Multilayer Switch Feature Card (MSFC)
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From the routing side, the requirements are the following:
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RSM, RSFC, or an external Cisco 7500, 7200, 4700, 4500, or 3600 series router Cisco IOS release 120(3c)W5(8a) or later on the Route Switch Feature Card (RSFC) Cisco IOS release 120(2) or later on Cisco 3600 series routers Cisco IOS release 113(2)WA4(4) or later on the Route Switch Module (RSM), or Cisco 7500, 7200, 4700, and 4500 series routers
In addition, you cannot use MLS if the following items are configured on the MLS-RP:
IP Security (IPSec encryption commands and options) disables MLS on the given router interface Any compression applied to an interface disables MLS for that interface NAT enabled on an interface disables MLS for that interface QoS features on an interface may disable MLS, specifically, Committed Access Rate (CAR)
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