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An example of the show mls entry output is shown here:
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Cat5K> show mls entry ip Last Used Last Used Destination IP Source IP Prot DstPrt SrcPrt Destination Mac Vlan Port --------------- --------------- ---- ------ ------ ----------------IP MLS-RP 1721611: 10111 1721612 TCP 80 41602 00-00-aa-bb-cc-dd 5 2/5
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The next command, show mls include, simply shows all of the configured MLS-RPs for this switch An example of its output follows:
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Cat5K>> show mls include ip Included IP MLS-RP --------------------------------------1721611
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If you want more detailed information about a particular MLS-RP, you can use the show mls rp command, as shown here:
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Cat5K> show mls rp ip 1721611
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MLS-RP IP MLS-RP ID XTAG MLS-RP MAC----------------------------------------------------1721611 0010298a0c09 2 00-00-00-00-00-01
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Finally, if you want to view detailed statistical information about MLS (such as which protocol is using up the most bandwidth), you can use the show mls statistics command This command is also very configurable, including several targets and subtargets, the most useful of which are detailed in Table 20-6 Table 20-6: Commonshow mls statistics Targets and Subtargets Subtarget Description N/A rp [IP address of MLS-RP] rp [IP address of MLS-RP] destination [address or network] source [address or network] Sorts the MLS statistics based on protocol used Displays IP MLS statistics associated with a given MLS-RP Displays IPX MLS statistics associated with a given MLS-RP Displays MLS statistics about specific destination addresses Displays MLS statistics about specific source addresses
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Target protocol ip ipx entry [ip | ipx]
Displays MLS statistics about a protocol flow [protocol | source port | for a given entry or entries destination port] Note The port and protocol statistics will be unavailable unless you are using the IP flow (full flow) mask This command is especially useful for evaluating and tuning your MLS environment's performance The following output shows many of the permutations of this command:
Cat5K>(enable) show mls statistics protocol Protocol TotalFlows TotalPackets Total Bytes ---------------- -------------- -----------Telnet 5 97 6221 WWW 74 479 93423 SMTP 35 961 139733 DNS 85 912 141036 Total 199 2449 380413 Cat5K> show mls statistics rp Total packets switched = 2449 Active IP MLS entries = 0 Total packets exported= 0 Total switched MLS-RP IP MLS-RP ID packets bytes --------------- ------------ ---------- -----------1721611 000000000001 2449 380413 Cat5K> show mls statistics entry destination 10001 Last Used Last Used Destination IP Source IP Prot DstPrt SrcPrt Stat-Pkts Stat-Bytes --------------- --------------- ---- ------ ------ ---------- -------------10001 1721612 6 46451 80 15 12543
Now that you've seen some of the show and debug commands related to MLS, if you are still having problems, you should be better equipped to locate and resolve those problems Just remember to keep an eye out for those eight common MLS issues listed at the beginning of this section If you are having problems with MLS, chances are, one of those issues is to blame Tip Sometimes "MLS errors" are actually routing errors If you have verified that the MLS environment is correctly configured, examine your routing configuration for errors If you determine that you do have an MLS misconfiguration, you must reconfigure the device To do this, you may need to use one of the commands listed in Table 20-7 to remove the current MLS configuration Table 20-7: Commands to Remove MLS Configurations Description IOS Type Disables MLS globally CatOS Removes one or more entries from the flow CatOS cache Removes one or more MLS-RP entries CatOS Disables MLS globally or on specific router Standard IOS interfaces Removes the interface from the list of management interfaces Standard IOS
Command set mls disable clear mls entry clear mls include no mls rp ip
no mls rp managementinterface
Once you have MLS up and running, you need to think about how to tune MLS to achieve optimal performance Follow a couple of basic tips to ensure the highest performance MLS environment possible First, attempt to reduce your flow masks, if possible The more a switch has to look at a packet, the higher the latency To ensure that the least specific possible flow mask is being used, first, avoid manually setting the flow mask on your switches The flow mask is to be used primarily to enforce access lists; and if access lists are enabled on your routers, they will inform all of the switches and change the flow mask for you Configuring the flow mask on your switches manually can cause problems and reduce performance Second, use access lists on your MLS-RPs only when absolutely necessary Again, configuring access lists on your MLS-RPs will increase the specificity of the flow mask used in the domain, which will reduce performance Note The Catalyst 6000 and 6500 series switches have hardware support for layer 4 switching, and therefore do not suffer from increased flow mask granularity nearly as much as the 5000/5500 series does Next, try to keep to a minimum the number of flows that the switches need to keep up with The more flows in the flow cache, the longer it takes to match packets to flows, and the higher the latency While the flow cache can support up to 128,000 entries on most platforms, Cisco recommends that you allow it to reach a maximum of only 32,000 entries This restriction is because, on most platforms, at 32,000 entries, the layer 3 switching process slows down to
about the same speed as standard routing at 32,000 entries If layer 3 switching isn't any faster than routing, then there isn't much point in using it! To control the size of the flow cache, you can use one of two methods The first method is to set the global time period that a flow is retained, called the aging time, to a lower value The default value is 256 seconds (The minimum value permitted is 8 seconds, and the maximum value permitted is 2032 seconds) Therefore, as long as a single packet is sent within 256 seconds of the last packet, the flow will remain in the cache The performance of your routers and switches, as well as the amount and type of traffic prevalent on your network, will determine whether this time is optimal You can increase or reduce the aging time by using the set mls agingtime [value in seconds] command on a CatOS-based switch, or the mls aging normal [time in seconds] command on a standard IOS based switch Note that MLS will accept only a multiple of 8 seconds for the aging time, so if you entered 180 seconds, the switch would automatically adjust this time 184 seconds Typically, the default aging time is fine, but your mileage may vary The second method of controlling the cache size (and, typically, the better method) is to enable and configure fast aging, which removes flow entries faster than normal that are briefly used from the cache For instance, when using a User Datagram Protocol (UDP) application, typically, the flow is very short lived (In some cases, only one packet may be transmitted per flow) In a situation in which the flow will be used only once and then the application establishes a new flow, there is no benefit to caching that flow However, by default, all flows are cached, so these flows will take up space in the cache By enabling fast aging, you define a threshold and a fast aging time limit If a number of packets equal to or greater than the threshold are not sent within the time limit specified, the entry is aged out of the cache early This allows the switch to identify short-lived flows and remove them at a faster rate to make room for valid flows To configure fast aging, use the command set mls agingtime fast [time in seconds] [threshold] on a CatOS switch, or the mls aging fast threshold [number of packets] time [time in seconds] command on a standard IOS based switch Cisco recommends that if you enable fast aging, you begin with the maximum time value of 128 and a low threshold This aging configuration allows you to see what, if any, impact fast aging has on your cache size without inadvertently overloading your routers If you need to view the configured aging settings on your switch, use the show mls command on a CatOS-based switch or the show mls aging command on a standard IOS based switch Finally, try to keep topology changes to a minimum When a MLS-RP is removed from the network, all of the entries for that device must be removed, leading to a temporary performance hit that can take you by surprise if you aren't prepared When using MLS, make sure you adequately prepare for planned topology changes, and attempt to remove MLS-RPs from the network only during periods of relative inactivity
Summary
This chapter covered layer 3 switching with MLS on both CatOS and standard IOS based switches It also examined the router configuration commands required to enable MLS At this point, you should be able to recognize the performance benefits of layer 3 switching, and
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