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Static Routing Configuration, Verification, and Troubleshooting
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Configuring static routing is a very simple process involving only one major command However, because in order for static routing to work, you must have everything else properly configured, this section discusses some troubleshooting tips for basic connectivity as well First, let's detail the major static routing command, ip route You use this command to create standard static routes, including default routes The syntax is ip route [destination network]
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[subnet mask] [next hop address | interface] [administrative distance] [permanent] The destination network and subnet mask are pretty straightforward The next hop address | interface section allows you to specify the next hop router or (optionally) the interface to use In nearly all cases, you should use the next hop router IP address instead of specifying the interface The administrative distance, in addition to being useful in complex static routing environments with redundant paths, is also used to flag the static route for removal from the table if a dynamic route is heard For instance, if you had a static route to the 10000/8 network that you wanted removed if the router hears a RIP advertisement for the 10000/8 network, you would set the administrative distance of the static route to 121 or higher Finally, you can flag the route as permanent, which means the route stays in the table even if the interface that is used for forwarding the route's packets goes down This strategy is typically not recommended, because it can cause problems if you have static routes set up for redundant paths Note Specifying the interface is not typically recommended By specifying the interface, you are telling the router that it should use the route as if it were directly connected In other words, rather than sending the packet to a remote router for forwarding, the router ARPs for the destination IP on the selected interface If the router is not directly connected (if it were, there would be no need to use this command in the first place), the remote router needs to have proxy ARP enabled for this command to work To create default routes using the ip route command, simply enter the command with the address and mask for the destination network set to 0000, as in the following example:
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2600A (config)# ip route 0000 0000 10111
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If you enter multiple default routes, the one with the lowest administrative distance is used If they all have the same administrative distance, the last one entered is used Tip All default routes entered are retained by the router If you enter several, the last one entered will be used If the interface that is used for that route fails, the previously entered default route will be used This can be helpful if you want to configure default route redundancy Note that the router does not load balance across default routes One interesting point to keep in mind is that, for a default route to actually be used, the router must be operating in "classless" mode Otherwise, the router will attempt to match a destination IP address only with its class-based network entry in the routing table, regardless of the subnet mask configured for the destination network in the routing table Obviously, this functionality can also cause all kinds of problems with discontiguous subnets and complex masking In most cases, this classfull behavior isn't an issue because, by default, Cisco routers come with ip classless enabled However, if you have problems getting a default route to work, make sure that the no ip classless command is not entered If it is, just go into global config mode and enter ip classless Note You can also use the ip default-network command to configure a default route; but, typically, you use this command only with a routing protocol that does not support the all 0's route (mainly IGRP) The ip default-network command is discussed in more detail
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in 24 You also need to be aware of one key show command when using static routing: show ip route This command displays your routing table, so you can see your changes after entering a static route The syntax for this command is show ip route [address] [mask] [longer-prefixes] [protocol] The only required part of the command is show ip route A simple show ip route command shows all networks in the routing table from all protocols, like so:
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3620#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 16925400/24 is subnetted, 8 subnets C 169254160 is directly connected, Serial1/3 C 169254150 is directly connected, Serial1/2 C 169254140 is directly connected, Serial1/1 C 169254130 is directly connected, Serial1/0 C 169254120 is directly connected, Serial0/3 C 169254110 is directly connected, Serial0/2 C 169254100 is directly connected, Serial0/1 C 16925490 is directly connected, Serial0/0 S 10000/8 [2/0] via 19216831 C 19216830/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 3620#
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There are a couple of points to note about this output First, the capability codes section at the top details which protocols are responsible for which routes Right now, you are concerned only with C (directly connected) and S (static), but you will learn about the others in later chapters Next, notice the section that says gateway of last resort is not set Examining this line is one way to find out what your default route is The default route will also have an asterisk (*) beside it Next, notice that the output also shows you both the class-based network and all of the subnets for that network Also, the capability code listed on the far left tells you how the router knows about this particular route Finally, notice that the static route shows a [2/0] before telling you what the next hop router is with via wwwxxxyyyzzz The [2/0] is the administrative distance/metric combination In this case, the route to the 10000 network has been entered with a nondefault administrative distance of 2; and the metric is, of course, 0 (Remember, you cannot set metrics on static routes) Now, let's say you want to see information only on the 16925400 network For this, you would change the command to show ip route 16925400, like so:
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3620>show ip route 16925400 Routing entry for 16925400/24, 8 known subnets Attached (8 connections) Redistributing via rip
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