code 128 barcode font for excel 2010 Figure 25-2: The passive state of the DUAL Link State Machine in Objective-C

Generating PDF-417 2d barcode in Objective-C Figure 25-2: The passive state of the DUAL Link State Machine

Figure 25-2: The passive state of the DUAL Link State Machine
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Figure 25-3: Input event-Query from router (Router X) other than current successor (Router Y)
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Figure 25-4: Input event-Update from router (Router X) other than current successor (Router Y)
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Figure 25-5: Input event-Query from current successor (Router Y)
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Figure 25-6: Input event-Update from current successor (Router Y)
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Figure 25-7: Input event-Failure of a directly connected network
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Figure 25-8: Input event-Change in cost of a directly connected network
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Figure 25-9: Input event-Neighbor fails to send hellos and holdtime is exceeded
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The charts function as follows The chart begins at the top with Passive (Stable) in Figure 252, assuming that adjacencies have already been established and the network is in a converged state Upon reception of an input event, follow the arrows down to the specific type of input event Note that references to routers X, Y, and Z should be viewed as follows:
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Router X Any neighbor that is not the successor for the route in question Router Y The successor for the route in question Router Z The local router
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The following terms are used to describe the input event types:
Query from router (Router X) other than current successor (Router Y) A query was received for a route, but not from the current successor for that route The
importance of this event is that because the query was not received from the successor, the route through the successor is still valid Update from router (Router X) other than current successor (Router Y) An update was received for a route, but not from the current successor for that route Query from current successor (Router Y) A query for a route was received from the neighbor currently listed as the successor for that route The importance of this event is that because the query was received from the successor, the route through the successor has failed (Queries are sent only when a path to a particular network cannot be found at all) Update from current successor (Router Y) An update for a route was received from the neighbor currently listed as the successor for that route Failure of a directly connected network A direct network link has failed, which affects the availability of all routes learned through that link Change in cost of a directly connected network One of the metric parameters (bandwidth or delay) has been changed on a directly connected link, affecting the metric of all routes learned through that link Neighbor fails to send hellos and holdtime is exceeded A neighbor fails to send hellos before the holdtime is exceeded, causing the neighbor to be removed from the neighbor table Thus, routes learned through that neighbor are removed from the topology table, which may cause a new successor to be chosen or routes to be removed from the routing table
Once you have determined the input event type, refer to the appropriate figure and follow the path of the arrows, answering the questions when prompted, until the path leads you back to the Passive (Stable) box (returning you to Figure 25-2) In some cases, you may loop through a given process several times before returning to Passive (Stable), but you will eventually get there Also note that the large boxes surrounding the paths under a given input event type are labeled "Local computation" While the router is performing these processes, the route is still passive If DUAL determines that a diffusing computation needs to occur, it enters an active state and performs a diffusing computation, as is seen by the dark-gray box in most of the input events However, even with this "simple" version of the algorithm, DUAL can be a bit difficult to understand at first Therefore, the next section explains the chart using examples DUAL Operational Examples This section walks you through DUAL using an example network Figure 25-10 shows the basic network, along with the costs for links The current topology table for the 19216810 network for all routers is shown in Table 25-1
Figure 25-10: The fully converged network for the DUAL operation examples The only routes you need to be concerned about in this case are the routes to the 19216810 network Once again, the metrics have been simplified to place the focus on DUAL rather than metric calculation The Local Cost and Advertised Cost columns are the metric calculated locally and the metric calculated at the neighbor in question, respectively The S/FS column shows whether this neighbor is the successor or feasible successor Finally, in this figure, convergence has already occurred To show you how I arrived at these topology tables, however, I will show you the convergence process, beginning with Figure 25-11 and its associated topology tables, shown in Table 25-2
Figure 25-11: The first step in convergence for the example network from Figure 25-10 Table 25-1: Topology tables for Figure 25-10 Router Neighbor Local Cost Advertised Cost S/FS FD Mudvayne Incubus Incubus Primus 3,100 2,100 2,100 1,100 S S 3,100 2,100
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