Walsh# show ip eigrp neighbors IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 1 H Address Interface in Objective-C

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Walsh# show ip eigrp neighbors IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 1 H Address Interface
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2 10026 Et0/1 1 169254132 Se0/1 0 169254142 Se0/0 Walsh# show ip eigrp topology IP-EIGRP Topology Table for AS(1)/ID(10011)
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Hold Uptime SRTT (sec) (ms) 12 00:1:16 4 12 00:42:21 56 12 00:42:21 56
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Codes: P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply, r - Reply status >OUTPUT SKIPPED< P 19216810/24, 1 successors, FD is 409600 via 10026 (409600/384000), Ethernet0/1
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So, the basic configuration is complete, and all hosts can now communicate with all other hosts Configuring Stub Routers In this case study, you want to configure a few routers for stub operation to reduce bandwidth use across your serial lines In this particular network, you may decide that Walsh, Schmit, and Frey should all be stubs, and they should send information about directly connected routes only to the hub router, Henley If you configure these routers using the eigrp stub connected command, however, you will have a few problems with the route to the 19216810 network again To see the effects of this, set Walsh, Schmit, and Frey to be stubs and examine the results: Frey:
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Frey(config)# router eigrp 1 Frey(config-router)# eigrp stub connected
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Walsh:
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Walsh(config)# router eigrp 1 Walsh(config-router)# eigrp stub connected
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Schmit:
Walsh(config)# router eigrp 1 Walsh(config-router)# eigrp stub connected
Now, examine the results of this on Henley:
Henley# show ip eigrp neighbors detail IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 1 H Address Interface Hold Uptime (sec)
SRTT (ms)
Q Seq Cnt Num
169254131 Se1/0 12 01:42:06 Version 120/11, Retrans: 0, Retries: 0 Stub Peer Advertising ( CONNECTED ) Routes 2 169254141 Se1/1 12 01:42:06 Version 120/11, Retrans: 0, Retries: 0 Stub Peer Advertising ( CONNECTED ) Routes 1 169254151 Se0/1 11 01:41:24 Version 120/11, Retrans: 0, Retries: 0 Stub Peer Advertising ( CONNECTED ) Routes 0 169254161 Se0/0 11 01:41:24 Version 120/11, Retrans: 0, Retries: 0 Stub Peer Advertising ( CONNECTED ) Routes Henley# show ip eigrp topology IP-EIGRP Topology Table for AS(1)/ID(1721641)
56 56 52 52
336 336 336 336
0 0 0 0
26 26 18 18
Codes: P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply, r - Reply status P 10010/24, 2 successors, FD is 1787392 via 169254132 (1889792/384000), Serial1/0 via 169254142 (1889792/384000), Serial1/1 P 10024/30, 2 successors, FD is 1787392 via 169254132 (1889792/384000), Serial1/0 via 169254142 (1889792/384000), Serial1/1 P 10030/24, 2 successors, FD is 1787392 via 169254152 (1889792/384000), Serial0/1 via 169254162 (1889792/384000), Serial0/0 P 169254160/24, 1 successors, FD is 1761792 via Connected, Serial0/0 P 16925400/16, 1 successors, FD is 1761792 via Summary (1761792/0), Null0 P 169254150/24, 1 successors, FD is 1761792 via Connected, Serial0/1 P 169254140/24, 1 successors, FD is 1761792 via Connected, Serial1/1 P 169254130/24, 1 successors, FD is 1761792 via Connected, Serial1/0 P 1721610/24, 1 successors, FD is 28160 via Connected, FastEthernet1/1 P 1721620/24, 1 successors, FD is 28160 via Connected, FastEthernet1/0 P 1721630/24, 1 successors, FD is 28160 via Connected, FastEthernet0/1 P 1721640/24, 1 successors, FD is 28160 via Connected, FastEthernet0/0 P 1723100/16, 1 successors, FD is 28160 via Summary (28160/0), Null0 P 19216820/24, 2 successors, FD is 1787392 via 169254152 (1889792/384000), Serial0/1 via 169254162 (1889792/384000), Serial0/0
Oops, looks like you lost the route to the 19216810 network on Henley Even worse, the topology table for Schmit would look like this:
Schmit# show ip eigrp topology IP-EIGRP Topology Table for AS(1)/ID(19216811) Codes: P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply, r - Reply status
P 10024/30, 1 successors, FD is 384000 via Connected, Ethernet0/1 P 10010/24, 1 successors, FD is 409600 via 10025 (409600/384000), Ethernet0/1 P 169254140/24, 1 successors, FD is 2707456 via 10025 (2707456/2681856), Ethernet0/1 P 169254130/24, 1 successors, FD is 2707456 via 10025 (2707456/2681856), Ethernet0/1 P 19216810/24, 1 successors, FD is 384000 via Connected, Ethernet0/0
Consequently, Schmit can't get to anyone who isn't directly connected to Walsh These problems occur any time you configure a hub router as a stub Technically, Walsh should be considered a hub router For this reason, if you remove the stub designation from Walsh using the no eigrp stub command, all of your routes will function again However, you still have the problem whereby too many updates are crossing the serial links to Walsh To reduce this problem (as well as cut down the query range a bit), you need to configure manual summarization in the next case study Configuring Manual Summarization With this particular implementation, configuring summary addresses is actually fairly easy You can't summarize routes from Walsh or Frey because they contain portions of a discontiguous network that will not fit into a summary address, so you cannot reduce the number of routes sent to Henley However, you can very easily reduce the query range and the number of routes sent from Henley to Walsh and Frey by using a single summary address to the 0000 network, like so:
Henley(config)# interface serial 0/0 Henley(config-if)# ip summary-address eigrp Henley(config-if)# interface serial 0/1 Henley(config-if)# ip summary-address eigrp Henley(config-if)# interface serial 1/0 Henley(config-if)# ip summary-address eigrp Henley(config-if)# interface serial 1/1 Henley(config-if)# ip summary-address eigrp 1 0000 0000 1 0000 0000 1 0000 0000 1 0000 0000
Now, if you look at the topology table on Walsh, you can almost immediately see the effects of this summary address:
Walsh# show ip eigrp topology IP-EIGRP Topology Table for AS(1)/ID(10011) Codes: P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply, r - Reply status P 0000/0, 2 successors, FD is 2172416 via 169254131 (2172416/28160), Serial0/1 via 169254141 (2172416/28160), Serial0/0 P 10010/24, 1 successors, FD is 384000 via Connected, Ethernet0/0 P 10024/30, 1 successors, FD is 384000 via Connected, Ethernet0/1 P 169254140/24, 1 successors, FD is 2169856 via Connected, Serial0/0 P 169254130/24, 1 successors, FD is 2169856
via Connected, Serial0/1 P 19216810/24, 1 successors, FD is 409600 via 10026 (409600/384000), Ethernet0/1
Notice that our summary address reduced the number of routes on Walsh significantly Yet, Walsh will still be able to route packets to all destinations If Walsh does not have a more specific path to a given destination, he will simply send packets to Henley, who has routes to all destinations Configuring Load Balancing In the current network, routes on Walsh and Frey that are routed through Henley are being load balanced by default because the dual serial links are configured for the same speeds (bandwidth 1544) and delay (20,000 microseconds) settings But what if the serial 0/1 link on both Walsh and Frey were configured for a bandwidth of 512 The topology table on Walsh would then change to the following:
Walsh# show ip eigrp topology 0000 0000 IP-EIGRP topology entry for 0000/0 State is Passive, Query origin flag is 1, 1 Successor(s), FD is 2172416 Routing Descriptor Blocks: 169254141 (Serial0/0), from 169254141, Send flag is 0x0 Composite metric is (2172416/28160), Route is Internal Vector metric: Minimum bandwidth is 1544 Kbit Total delay is 20100 microseconds Reliability is 255/255 Load is 1/255 Minimum MTU is 1500 Hop count is 1 169254131 (Serial0/1), from 169254131, Send flag is 0x0 Composite metric is (5514496/28160), Route is Internal Vector metric: Minimum bandwidth is 512 Kbit Total delay is 20100 microseconds Reliability is 255/255 Load is 1/255 Minimum MTU is 1500 Hop count is 1 Walsh#
The routing table on Walsh before the bandwidth change would have been as follows:
SerialRouter2#show ip route 0000 Routing entry for 0000/0 Known via "eigrp 1", distance 90, metric 2172416, candidate default path, type internal Redistributing via eigrp 1 Last update from 169254131 on Serial0/1, 00:00:19 ago Routing Descriptor Blocks: * 169254131, from 169254131, 00:00:19 ago, via Serial0/1 Route metric is 2172416, traffic share count is 1 Total delay is 21000 microseconds, minimum bandwidth is 1544 Kbit Reliability 255/255, minimum MTU 1500 bytes Loading 1/255, Hops 1 169254141, from 169254141, 00:00:19 ago, via Serial0/0 Route metric is 2172416, traffic share count is 1
Total delay is 21000 microseconds, minimum bandwidth is 1544 Kbit Reliability 255/255, minimum MTU 1500 bytes Loading 1/255, Hops 1
However, after the bandwidth change, the routing table changes to this:
SerialRouter2#show ip route 0000 Routing entry for 0000/0 Known via "eigrp 1", distance 90, metric 2172416, candidate default path, type internal Redistributing via eigrp 1 Last update from 169254131 on Serial0/1, 00:00:19 ago Routing Descriptor Blocks: * 169254141, from 169254141, 00:00:27 ago, via Serial0/0 Route metric is 2172416, traffic share count is 1 Total delay is 21000 microseconds, minimum bandwidth is 1544 Kbit Reliability 255/255, minimum MTU 1500 bytes Loading 1/255, Hops 1
The route through the serial 0/1 interface would be removed from the table because it is no longer a successor and is relegated to a feasible successor (It meets the FC, but does not meet the metric times variance successor rule) To allow EIGRP to perform unequal-cost load balancing across these links, you should set the variance high enough to allow the path through the serial 0/1 interface to be used Because the lowest metric is 2,172,416 and the metric for the serial 0/1 link is now 5,514,496, the variance should equal 5,514,496/2,172,416 = 25 or 3 Once you correctly set the variance, you can see the effect by performing another show ip route command and a debug ip packets command while pinging a remote network:
SerialRouter2(config)#router eigrp 1 SerialRouter2(config-router)#variance 3 SerialRouter2(config-router)#^Z SerialRouter2#show ip route 0000 Routing entry for 0000/0 Known via "eigrp 1", distance 90, metric 2172416, candidate default path, type internal Redistributing via eigrp 1 Last update from 169254131 on Serial0/1, 00:00:19 ago Routing Descriptor Blocks: * 169254131, from 169254131, 00:00:19 ago, via Serial0/1 Route metric is 2172416, traffic share count is 1 Total delay is 21000 microseconds, minimum bandwidth is 1544 Kbit Reliability 255/255, minimum MTU 1500 bytes Loading 1/255, Hops 1 169254141, from 169254141, 00:00:19 ago, via Serial0/0 Route metric is 2172416, traffic share count is 1 Total delay is 21000 microseconds, minimum bandwidth is 1544 Kbit Reliability 255/255, minimum MTU 1500 bytes Loading 1/255, Hops 1 SerialRouter2#deb ip packet detail IP packet debugging is on (detailed) SerialRouter2#ping 1721611 Type escape sequence to abort Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 1721611, timeout is 2 seconds: 2w2d: IP: s=169254142 (local), d=1721611 (Serial0/0), len 100, sending 2w2d: ICMP type=8, code=0 !
2w2d: IP: s=1721611 (Serial0/0), d=169254142 (Serial0/0), rcvd3 2w2d: ICMP type=0, code=0 2w2d: IP: s=169254142 (local), d=1721611 (Serial0/0), len sending 2w2d: ICMP type=8, code=0 ! 2w2d: IP: s=1721611 (Serial0/0), d=169254142 (Serial0/0), rcvd3 2w2d: ICMP type=0, code=0 2w2d: IP: s=169254132 (local), d=1721611 (Serial0/1), len sending 2w2d: ICMP type=8, code=0 ! 2w2d: IP: s=1721611 (Serial0/0), d=169254132 (Serial0/1), rcvd3 2w2d: ICMP type=0, code=0 2w2d: IP: s=169254142 (local), d=1721611 (Serial0/0), len sending 2w2d: ICMP type=8, code=0 ! 2w2d: IP: s=1721611 (Serial0/0), d=169254142 (Serial0/0), rcvd3 2w2d: ICMP type=0, code=0 2w2d: IP: s=169254142 (local), d=1721611 (Serial0/0), len sending 2w2d: ICMP type=8, code=0 ! 2w2d: IP: s=1721611 (Serial0/0), d=169254142 (Serial0/0), rcvd3 2w2d: ICMP type=0, code=0 Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 36/37/40 ms
len 100, 100,
len 100, 100,
len 100, 100,
len 100, 100,
len 100,
Notice that three packets were sent over the serial 0/0 interface for every one packet sent over the serial 0/1 interface, just as you wanted After all of these steps, the example network is configured as efficiently as possible without changing IP addressing structures
Summary
This chapter examined EIGRP and DUAL in detail, and, through case studies, demonstrated some of the intricacies of EIGRP configuration and troubleshooting Because EIGRP is such a widely used protocol in Cisco environments, the examination of EIGRP should help you support larger-scale internal routing needs In the next chapter, we examine OSPF-the other choice for highly scalable internal routing
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