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Subnet 1 192168133 192168162 10401 107255254 1721621 172163254 19216819 192168114
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Subnet 2 192168165 192168191 10801 1011255254 1721641 172165254 192168117 192168122
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For the mask selection portion, unfortunately, there is no real shortcut However, for ranging, the shortcut is very easy It follows a four-step process, outlined here: 1 Find the "interesting" octet the one that has a mask that is not either 0 or 255 So in the subnet mask 2552551920, the interesting octet is the third octet (192) 2 Find the range by subtracting the interesting octet from 256 For instance, 256 192 = 64 3 Begin to calculate the range for each subnet by starting with zero in the interesting octet and beginning the next subnet at a multiple of the range For instance, if the base network address is 1721600 with a mask of 2552551920, the range is 64, and the interesting octet is the third octet So the first subnet is from 1721600 through 1721663255, the second is from 17216640 through 17216127255, and so on 4 Finally, remove the first and last subnets and the first and last IP addresses for each subnet To show you how this works, let's take an example and perform the ranging process on it (See Figure 6-41 for a visual representation of the example)
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Figure 6-41: Illustration of the example Let's take 19216810 with a 255255255248 mask First, we find the interesting octet, the last octet Then we subtract from 256 the number of the subnet mask in the interesting octet: 256 248 = 8 So eight is our range Now we calculate the subnets by using the range, starting with 19216810, as listed here:
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1 19216810 19216817 2 19216818 192168115 3 192168116 192168123 4 192168124 192168131 5 192168132 192168139 6 192168140 192168147 7 192168148 192168155 8 192168156 192168163 9 192168164 192168171 10 192168172 192168179 11 192168180 192168187 12 192168188 192168195 13 192168196 1921681103 14 1921681104 1921681111 15 1921681112 1921681119 16 1921681120 1921681127 17 1921681128 1921681135 18 1921681136 1921681143 19 1921681144 1921681151 20 1921681152 1921681159 21 1921681160 1921681167 22 1921681168 1921681175 23 1921681176 1921681183 24 1921681184 1921681191 25 1921681192 1921681199 26 1921681200 1921681207 27 1921681208 1921681215 28 1921681216 1921681223 29 1921681224 1921681231 30 1921681232 1921681239 31 1921681240 1921681247 32 1921681248 1921681255 Finally, we have to remove the two invalid subnets, as well as the first and last IP addresses in each subnet This leaves us with a revised list, as follows: 1 2 3 4 19216810 19216817 19216819 192168114 192168117 192168122 192168125 192168130
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24 subnets later 28 1921681217 1921681222 29 1921681225 1921681230 30 1921681233 1921681238 31 1921681240 1921681246 32 1921681248 1921681255
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That's it Pretty simple, huh Now let's get into something a little more complicated: variable length subnet masking (VLSM) and classless interdomain routing (CIDR)
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Before we go into VLSM, you need to get used to a few new concepts First, you need to understand the "slash" style of writing subnet masks This style involves putting a slash and then the number of bits (consecutive ones) in the mask after an IP address instead of writing the mask out in decimal For instance, if you wanted to represent 1721610 2552552240, you would write it as 1721610/19 They both mean the same thing; the slash style is just easier to write Second, we need to go into some complex subnetting Complex subnetting involves subnetting more than one octet Up to this point, we have subnetted only a single octet Subnetting multiple octets really isn't any harder just a bit weirder For instance, let's take an example with a 10000 network address Say we needed 2,000 subnets with 8,000 hosts per subnet The subnet requirement forces us to use at least 11 bits in the subnet portion (211 2 = 2046) This gives us a mask of 2552552240, or 10000/21 This means that all of the second and part of the third octets are in the subnet section of the address Determining the ranges might seem a little more complicated for this address, but it really isn't
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Using the shortcut, we perform the same process First, we determine which octet is the interesting octet The third octet fits the bill, so we start there We take 224 and subtract it from 256 This leaves the range of 32 However, in this case, we must remember that we have a whole octet in front of this one before we begin the next step Because of this, when we begin the next step, we must take the second octet (the noninteresting one) into account We do this by beginning at zero on the second octet, increasing the third octet by the range up until we reach the last range, and then adding one to the second octet and starting over For instance: 1 10000 10031255 2 100320 10063255 3 100640 10095255 4 100960 100127255 5 1001280 100159255 6 1001600 100191255 7 1001920 100223255 8 1002240 100255255 9 10100 10131255 10 101320 10163255 11 101640 10195255 12 101960 101127255 13 And so on Then we go back and remove the two invalid subnets (first and last) and the two invalid addresses in each subnet (first and last) This leaves us with something similar to this:
1 10000 10031255 2 100321 10063254 3 100641 10095254 4 100961 100127254 5 1001281 100159254 6 1001601 100191254 7 1001921 100223254 8 1002241 100255254 9 10101 10131254 10 101321 10163254 Then, about 2,000 subnets later 2042 2043 2044 2045 2046 10255961 10255127254 102551281 10255159254 102551601 10255191254 102551921 10255223254 102552241 10255255254
That's all there is to subnetting multiple octets You just have to remember to keep increasing the number in the noninteresting octet every time you complete a full set of ranges in the interesting octet Now we will move on to variable length subnet masking (VLSM), which is used to take a class-based address and make it a bit more scalable and less wasteful The problem with classbased addresses is that they are typically either too big or too small to be of use in most situations For instance, assume that we have the network layout pictured in Figure 6-42 With the class B address subnetted using a 20-bit (2552552400) mask, we have 14 subnets and 4,094 hosts per subnet This is what we need in Building 1 and Building 5 because they both have nearly 3,000 hosts However, the rest of the locations have significantly fewer, and they are wasting addresses Out of the 12 additional locations, none of them are using more than 500 IP addresses each, but they all have the /20 mask This means we are wasting well over 40,000 IP addresses
Figure 6-42: Address waste without using VLSM All told, VLSM isn't that complicated It basically consists of subnetting a class- based address space and then subnetting the subnets until you reach the desired number of hosts for a given network With VLSM, however, a couple of new rules significantly reduce this waste First, we do not have to remove the all zeros and all ones subnets We are allowed to use these to contain hosts (We still must remove the first and last IP addresses from each subnet, however) Second, we are allowed to have different masks applied to different sections of the network This allows us to divide the network up into smaller and smaller pieces as needed (as shown in Figure 6-43) The only trick is to make sure that no address ranges overlap each other
Figure 6-43: Reducing waste by using VLSM The trick to making sure no overlap happens is to perform the computations in binary First, we determine how many hosts are required for the largest networks In this case, at least 3,000 hosts are required on the two largest networks, so we will start from there Supporting those hosts requires the 20-bit mask, which gives us 16 subnetworks (remember, we don't have to throw away the first and last subnets with VLSM), with 4,094 hosts each (because we still do have to throw away the first and last IP addresses in each subnet) We use two of these networks for Buildings 1 and 5 The rest of the hosts require only around 6,000 IP addresses, so we need two of the larger 4,094 subnets to support these subnets We take the first one (17216320) and divide it among the eight networks with 450 hosts, each using a 23-bit mask The three bits added to the subnet mask (making a subsubnet portion) allow us eight subnets with 510 hosts each Looking at the binary in Figure 6-44, you can see that none of the ranges overlap
Figure 6-44: The binary math involved with VLSM Finally, the last four networks all need less than 254 hosts This requires a 24-bit mask, so we take one of the 20-bit subnets and subdivide it using this mask This gives us 16 subnetworks within the single 17216480/20 network, each with 254 hosts We use four of these for the four subnets, leaving a grand total of 12 subnets with 254 hosts and 12 subnets with 4,094 hosts left for future expansion See Figure 6-45 for a logical breakdown of the subdivision
Figure 6-45: The subdivision of one of our /20 networks Table 6-2 lists the final ranges of IP addresses Table 6-2: Subnet Ranges in the VLSM Example Address/Mask Range Hosts 1721600/20 17216160/20 17216320/23 17216340/23 17216360/23 17216380/23 17216400/23 17216420/23 17216440/23 17216460/23 17216480/24 17216490/24 1721601 1721615254 17216161 1721631254 17216321 1721633254 17216341 1721635254 17216361 1721637254 17216381 1721639254 17216401 1721641254 17216421 1721643254 17216441 1721645254 17216461 1721647254 17216481 1721648254 17216491 1721649254 4,094 4,094 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 510 254 254
Network Subnet 1 Subnet 2 Subnet 3 Subnet 4 Subnet 5 Subnet 6 Subnet 7 Subnet 8 Subnet 9 Subnet 10 Subnet 11 Subnet 12
Use Building 1 Building 5 Building 2 Building 3 Building 4 Building 6 Building 7 Building 8 Building 9 Building 10 Building 11 Building 12
Network Subnet 13 Subnet 14 Subnet 15 Subnet 16 Subnet 17 Subnet 18 Subnet 19 Subnet 20 Subnet 21 Subnet 22 Subnet 23 Subnet 24 Subnet 25 Subnet 26 Subnet 27 Subnet 28 Subnet 29 Subnet 30 Subnet 31 Subnet 32 Subnet 33
Table 6-2: Subnet Ranges in the VLSM Example Address/Mask Range Hosts 17216500/24 17216510/24 17216520/24 17216530/24 17216540/24 17216550/24 17216560/24 17216570/24 17216580/24 17216590/24 17216600/24 17216610/24 17216620/24 17216630/24 17216640/20 17216800/20 17216960/20 172161120/20 172161280/20 172161440/20 172161600/20 17216501 1721650254 17216511 1721651254 17216521 1721652254 17216531 1721653254 17216541 1721654254 17216551 1721655254 17216561 1721656254 17216571 1721657254 17216581 1721658254 17216591 1721659254 17216601 1721660254 17216611 1721661254 17216621 1721662254 17216631 1721663254 17216641 1721679254 17216801 1721695254 254 254 254 254 254 254 254 254 254 254 254 254 254 254 4,094 4,094
Use Building 13 Building 14 Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion Future expansion
17216961 17216111254 4,094 172161121 17216127254 172161281 17216143254 172161441 17216159254 172161601 17216175254 4,094 4,094 4,094 4,094
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