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The common internal components include RAM modules, flash memory, ROM, CPU, backplane, and nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) RAM Modules Cisco devices use dynamic RAM (DRAM) just like a PC for working memory The RAM in your Cisco devices holds your current configuration, called the running config (covered in more detail in 14), and the run-time version of the Internetworking Operating System (IOS) the operating system for most Cisco products Luckily, in most cases, you won't need as much memory for your Cisco devices as you may require in a regular PC because the IOS is considerably smaller than most PC operating systems today A typical amount of RAM for most routers is 16MB If some of the higher-end features such as Border Gateway Patrol (BGP) are needed in your router, you may have to increase the RAM to support them, however Cisco devices typically use single inline memory modules (SIMMs) and dual inline memory modules (DIMMs) for RAM, just like a PC; but these are not usually standard DIMMs or SIMMs that you can buy (or find in the bottom of Cracker Jack boxes, as cheap as they are now) for your PC Rather, they are specially made for your Cisco device (usually the slit in the module is in a different spot), so expect to pay a good bit more Flash Memory Flash memory is used on a Cisco device similar to the way a hard disk is used on a PC Flash contains the stored IOS, and it is used for more permanent storage than RAM because it does not lose information when the router is powered down Flash memory comes in two basic types on Cisco devices: SIMMs or DIMMs that can be inserted like standard RAM, or flash memory PCMCIA cards (or PC Cards, if your prefer) Once again, no matter how the flash is inserted, it is a required part of your Cisco device Also, just because it contains an industry standard PCMCIA slot doesn't mean that you can insert any old flash memory card into it Again, it typically needs to be a custom card for your particular model of device ROM
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ROM on a Cisco device is typically used to provide a basic backup version of the IOS for use when you cannot boot the device in any other fashion ROM contains the ROM Monitor code, which is used if the IOS in flash memory is corrupt and unbootable, or for low-level diagnostics and reconfiguration (like when someone changes the password and locks you out of the router) Because ROM is read-only by definition, to upgrade to a new version of ROM, you must usually take an integrated circuit (IC) puller, extract the old ROM chip from its socket, and then insert the new ROM chip Luckily, this operation is not typical, and you should only rarely need to do it CPU The CPU is used for the same purpose as the CPU on a PC: it is the "brain" of the device Most Cisco devices perform many software computations, which are carried out by the CPU Cisco uses many different models of CPUs in various devices, depending on the intended use of the device In a router, the CPU is especially important because most of a router's functions are carried out in software, and the CPU has a dramatic impact on performance In switches, the CPU is generally less important because most of a switch's calculations are carried out in specialized pieces of hardware known as application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) One way or another, knowing where the CPU resides on the mainboard is not important because you cannot upgrade it Backplane The "backplane width" is a term that's thrown around a lot in conversations about network devices (usually switches) The backplane is like the bus that all network communication travels over inside the network device The backplane is of primary importance in switches and other high-port-density devices This is just basic math If you have a Cisco Catalyst 3548 switch, the device ships with an 8 Gbps backplane, 48 100BaseT ports, and 2 gigabit slots If all slots and ports are filled and every device is transmitting at full throttle (which should be an exceedingly rare occurrence), the total data bandwidth used (based solely on wire speed) would be 136 Gbps However, if you start counting interframe gaps the delay between the time one packet is transmitted and another can transmit that number drops down to a more realistic 8 10 Gbps This number is still higher than the backplane speed; so in this situation, the bottom line is that the switch will be a bottleneck But this situation should happen so rarely that this issue is almost nonexistent However, imagine that the backplane is only 2 Gbps, and you start to see how important the backplane speed is to a switch For a standard low-port-density router, the backplane speed is of minimal importance The packets per second (PPS) rate on a router has much less to do with the backplane speed and more to do with the processor speed Typically, a router never operates at wire speed anyway On switches and other high-port-density devices, however, the backplane is one of the most important considerations NVRAM Nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) is a type of RAM that does not lose information upon power loss The amount of NVRAM in most Cisco devices is very small (typically between 32 and
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256KB), and it is used to store the configuration used upon boot, called the startup config (discussed further in 14)
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