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ED Code A D E H N S T W
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Finally, Figure 14-1 illustrates this explanation visually
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Figure 14-1: Breakdown of IOS ED releases However, even though you will generally be using the ED releases if you are on the bleeding edge, in some environments, you may be using what is called a mature release: a release without the ED, such as 121(3) This means that it is (usually) a more stable but perhaps less feature-rich version of the IOS than a newer ED version (like 121(3)T) As for file-naming conventions, Cisco takes the version of IOS and then makes it a whole lot more complex by adding all sorts of other specific information (Hey, you're reading a Cisco book, what did you expect ) To elucidate, the filename you would see on an IOS image might be something like c4500js40_120-3t-mz Pretty nasty, huh Again, it really isn't all that bad, once you know the convention Here's the breakdown:
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The c4500 is for the platform, and, in this case, it tells you that this image is for a 4500 series router
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The js40 denotes the feature set (shown in Table 14-2), in this case, Enterprise Plus with 40-bit encryption Table 14-2: Feature Set Codes Feature Set IP Only IP Plus Desktop Desktop Plus Enterprise Enterprise Plus Enterprise/APPN Enterprise/APPN Plus Service Provider ISDN Communications Server CFRAD LANFRAD AppleTalk IP/IPX IBM Frame Relay APPN (IBM)
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Code I IS D DS J JS AJ AJS P G C F FIN B N R F A
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The 120-3t is obviously the version (120(3)T, in this case) The m tells you that the software is to be executed from RAM The z tells you that the file you have is zipped, or compressed (a decompressed file is denoted with a l) and must be decompressed into its executable bin format before you can load it on your device
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Figure 14-2 shows this entire filename layout
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Figure 14-2: Filename breakdown
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Booting a Cisco Device
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Booting a Cisco device is pretty easy You simply plug in the power and hit the switch However, a lot goes on behind the scenes that you should be aware of in case problems arise First, the device performs a power-on self test (POST), very similar to a PC However, Cisco devices do not have beep codes; rather, they have flashing lights While every line of device displays error codes a bit differently, they all have a key to the flash codes For instance, in a 1900 series switch, 16 different LEDs (one for each of the first 16 ports) are used to signify failures If any component in the switch fails the POST tests, a port lights up amber on one or more of these LEDs The port that turns amber indicates the component that failed For example, if port 12 lights up as amber, it indicates that the forwarding engine has failed (a fatal error, meaning the switch cannot function until it is repaired) Therefore, you should know what your Cisco device normally displays when all is well If it displays a different light code, you know something is most likely wrong
Basic Cisco Device Configuration
Once the device has booted, you can begin configuring it On a new device, configuration is usually performed by the console connection because the device does not yet have an IP address for Telnet configuration Upon booting the device, however, a few details are worth paying attention to These are illustrated and explained in the following example (Note that all of the following displays are only for the standard IOS; most are from a 2600 series router)
System Bootstrap, Version 113(2)XA4, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Copyright (c) 1999 by cisco Systems, Inc TAC:Home:SW:IOS:Specials for info C2600 platform with 32768 Kbytes of main memory
In this first section, two points are of primary importance First, you are shown the system bootstrap version on the device This is the "mini-IOS" that is actually used to boot the device to the IOS image stored in flash RAM You can think of this as the bootup disk, except it is normally stored in ROM, and therefore difficult to change Second, you can see the amount of system RAM installed If this number does not match the amount you know is installed, then you could have bad or improper RAM installed (Remember, most Cisco devices take special DRAM) Next, you should see something similar to this:
program load complete, entry point: 0x80008000, size: 0x403b9c Self decompressing the image : ################################################# ################################## [OK] Restricted Rights Legend Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c) of the Commercial Computer Software - Restricted Rights clause at FAR sec 52227-19 and subparagraph (c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS sec 252227-7013 cisco Systems, Inc 170 West Tasman Drive San Jose, California 95134-1706
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-I-M), Version 120(7)T, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2) Copyright (c) 1986-1999 by cisco Systems, Inc Compiled Tue 07-Dec-99 02:12 by phanguye Image text-base: 0x80008088, data-base: 0x807AAF70
Again, two points are of primary importance First, you see the Self decompressing the image, and then lots of pound (#) signs (some of which were removed in this example); and, finally, you hope, an OK The router decompresses the image if the image is a self-decompressing compressed image, which is becoming common in newer routers This functionality allows precious flash RAM space to be preserved by compressing the image for storage, but then fully decompressing it for load into RAM at boot The second concern is near the end of the display The IOS c2600 software prompt tells you which version of IOS you are loading from flash and booting the device with In this case, the 2600 router is using version 120(7)T Finally, you will see more hardware-specific information on the next screen:
cisco 2611 (MPC860) processor (revision 0x203) with 26624K/6144K bytes of memory Processor board ID JAD04360GH7 (4114038455) M860 processor: part number 0, mask 49 Bridging software X25 software, Version 300 2 Ethernet/IEEE 8023 interface(s) 1 Serial network interface(s) 32K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory 8192K bytes of processor board System flash (Read/Write) Press RETURN to get started!
First, you see the processor and a few more specifics about the RAM in your device In the section that reads 26624K/6144K bytes of memory, the first number is the amount of DRAM devoted to main memory (used for running the IOS, working space, and so on), and the second number is the amount of memory devoted to shared memory (used as buffers for all of your interfaces) These two numbers together should be equal to the total amount of DRAM in your system Note that on some routers, the ratio of main to shared memory is a fixed distribution, while on others, it is changeable Also note that in some of the high-end lines (like the 7500 series), each Versatile Interface Processor (VIP) may have its own packet or shared memory, separate from the main system memory Next, you see a bit about some of the software features installed and the interfaces installed You simply need to make sure the interface types and counts displayed on this screen are in accordance with what you expect After the interfaces is the amount of NVRAM and flash RAM installed Finally, a prompt tells you to press RETURN to continue Remember this, because when you first plug the console cable into an already booted device, you will not see anything (including this message) on the screen You need to press ENTER to arrive at a prompt Note If you miss the initial startup screen but you want to see the information presented there,
the show version command displays the same information On some Cisco devices (mostly routers), you will initially be greeted with a setup screen calling itself the System Configuration Dialog This is like a text-only "wizard" that guides you through initial configuration by simply asking a series of questions This process allows you to configure the device even if you have little or no experience with the IOS The prompts you will see and explanations of what they mean are provided in the following discussion After pressing the ENTER key, you will usually be prompted with this:
- System Configuration Dialog At any point you may enter a question mark ' ' for help Refer to the 'Getting Started' Guide for additional help Use ctrl-c to abort configuration dialog at any prompt Default settings are in square brackets '[]' Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog [yes]:
The [yes] means that the default answer to this question is yes, and if you simply press ENTER, that is what will be selected If you select yes, you enter the "setup wizard" (a Microsoft term, but it fits) called basic management setup If not, you will be sent directly to the CLI Don't worry if you selected no and wanted to enter the wizard; you can simply reboot the device (as long as the device has a blank NVRAM, or startup, configuration), and you will get the same prompt Alternatively, you can also enter enable mode (covered in "IOS Modes," later in this chapter) and type setup to return You will also notice that the question mark ( ) key is used to get help You will learn more about this concept later (in the "Command Help and Shortcuts" section), but remember it, because it will be your best friend (besides this book, of course) You can also press CTRL-C to completely exit back to the IOS at any time, should you decide you made a mistake Your changes to the configuration do not take effect until the end of the process Assuming you chose yes, the next prompt you should see will be similar to this:
First, would you like to see the current interface summary [yes]:
You are simply being asked if you would like to see the interfaces currently installed in the router and what the current settings on these interfaces are Choosing yes will display something like this:
Any interface listed with OK value "NO" does not have a valid configuration Interface IP-Address OK Method Status Protocol TokenRing0 unassigned YES not set down down Ethernet0 unassigned YES not set down down Serial0 unassigned YES not set down down Fddi0 unassigned YES not set down down
Notice that this information gives you the basics:
What is the name of the interface Has an IP address been assigned to it Is it physically functional How was it last configured
Is the interface active (in Ethernet terms, does it have a link) Are any protocols active on the interface
Most of the time, your only concern is that all of the interfaces are listed on this page that the router is supposed to have installed Because you will typically use the setup tool only when the router is first installed, the IP address, method set, and so on, will all be blank If the interface is not listed, the interface is either completely dead, or, possibly, a bug in the IOS is preventing detection of the interface (a known issue with some versions of IOS available for the 3660 router) The next prompt you will be presented with should be as follows:
Configuring global parameters: Enter host name [Router]:
Enter what you would like the DNS host name to be for the router Note that the DNS host name will also become your prompt unless it is overridden with the prompt command (discussed further in 15) Note that entering a DNS host name here doesn't necessarily mean that the router host name can now be resolved on the PCs in your network (by typing ping router, for instance) For the name to be resolvable by other devices, you must enter an A (host) record for the name in your DNS server, or add the entry to the hosts file on applicable machines The DNS host name simply tells the router what to call itself Next, you will see this message:
The enable secret is a password used to protect access to privileged EXEC and configuration modes This password, after entered, becomes encrypted in the configuration Enter enable secret: The enable password is used when you do not specify an enable secret password, with some older software versions, and some boot images Enter enable password:
The enable secret and enable password is almost like the administrator password for a device By entering enable mode using the secret or password, you can modify the configuration and perform diagnostics that could potentially disrupt operations of the device The difference between the enable secret and the enable password is that the enable secret is encrypted and not viewable in the configuration files, whereas the enable password is listed in plaintext If both are set, then the secret is always used, unless you are using a really old version of the IOS that does not understand enable secrets When going through setup mode, the IOS will not allow you to set both of these passwords to the same name It requires you to make them different Enable password and enable secret are discussed in more detail in "IOS Modes," later in the chapter Next, you should see a prompt like this:
The virtual terminal password is used to protect access to the router over a network interface Enter virtual terminal password:
This is your vty, or Telnet password Whenever users attempt to access the router from Telnet, they will be required to enter this password, if it is set This subject is discussed in more detail in 15 Next, you should see the following:
Configure SNMP Network Management [yes]: Community string [public]: Any interface listed with OK value "NO" does not have a valid configuration Interface IP-Address OK Method Status Protocol BRI0 unassigned YES not set down down Ethernet0 unassigned YES not set down down Serial0 unassigned YES not set down down Serial1 unassigned YES not set down down Enter interface name used to connect to the management network from the above interface summary: ethernet0
This output allows you to set up basic SNMP functionality on the router, including setting the community name and the interface from which you will manage the router Next, you will see the following:
Configure IP [yes]: Configure IGRP routing [yes]: Your IGRP autonomous system number [1]: 1
This output allows you to enable IP on your interfaces Note that the specific options you are given here may vary depending on the model of router and feature set of IOS You may be asked to set up IPX, DECnet, AppleTalk, and other protocol suites if your router supports them It may also ask to configure your routing protocols at this point (like in the previous example) (s 23 through 27 discuss routing protocols in considerable detail) Next, you will be presented with the following:
Configuring interface parameters: Ethernet0 Configure IP on this interface [yes]: IP address for this interface: 19216811 Subnet mask for this interface [2552552550] : Class C network is 19216810, 24 subnet bits; mask is /24
This output allows you to perform basic IP configuration on all of your interfaces Again, the specific options you are presented with may vary depending on the model of router and interfaces installed Finally, it will build your configuration file, which will look something like this:
hostname router enable secret 5 $1$HNfx$Nhj5AqtXt823hCEBfJZt enable password test line vty 0 4 password open snmp-server community public ! ip routing ! interface BRI0 no ip address ! interface Ethernet0 ip address 19216811 2552552550
! interface Serial0 no ip address ! interface Serial1 no ip address ! router igrp 1 network 19216810 ! end
This output simply details in IOS command format all of the changes that you requested You are then prompted to save the configuration with the following:
[0] Go to the IOS command prompt without saving this config [1] Return back to the setup without saving this config [2] Save this configuration to nvram and exit Enter your selection [2]:
Choice 0 returns you to the IOS without making any changes Choice 1 restarts setup without making changes (in case you made an error) Choice 2 saves the configuration and returns you to the IOS, which is typically what you want to do That's all there is to IOS setup mode By answering a series of simple questions, you can set up the basic configuration of a router The down side to setup mode is that you cannot configure anything complex or unique; and, once you learn the IOS, setup mode takes longer than just banging out the commands you need from the prompt But for beginners, it is a very easy way to get the router up
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