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Hostname and Host
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There is a popular utility in Windows and Linux that you can use to find out the computername, or hostname, of your system the command is the hostname command, which is shown in Figure 6-27
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Other TCP/IP Utilities
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FIGURE 6-27
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Display your system name with the hostname command
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Another useful utility that is available on Linux systems to query DNS is the host utility There are a number of switches that go along with the host utility, but in its simplest form you could type:
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host wwwgleneclarkecom
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This will return the IP address of the FQDN wwwgleneclarkecom You can also perform tasks such as finding all the mail servers for the company as you can with DIG or NSLOOKUP To do this with the host command, you type the following command:
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host -t MX glensworldloc
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In this code example the -t switch allows you to specify which records you wish to query for; in my example I am looking for the MX records from the domain glensworldloc Figure 6-28 displays the output of the two host commands discussed
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MTR is a network diagnostics program available in Linux that combines features of Tracert and Ping It is a glorified traceroute tool that sends multiple ping messages to each router between the source and the destination To use MTR, you simply type mtr and then specify your destination as shown in Figure 6-29
FIGURE 6-28
Using the host command in Linux
6:
TCP/IP Utilities
FIGURE 6-29
MTR is a Linux utility that combines Tracert with Ping
You can see in the figure that there are five hops between my system and the destination With each destination you can see the packets sent and the packets that have been received as replies along with the percentage of packets lost
Route
The route command is a very popular TCP/IP utility that is used to manage the routing table of the local system You learned about the route command in 5, but just as a refresher Table 6-12 is a listing of popular options to the route command
Arping
Arping is a popular Linux utility that combines the ping command with the concept of ARP Remember that ARP is a protocol used to convert the IP address to a MAC address so when you use arping, you will be sending out ping messages but you will get replies that include the MAC address of the IP address you pinged Very cool! Figure 6-30 displays the output of the arping utility
TABLE 6-12
Route Command
route print route add 19216820 MASK 2552552550 19216812 route delete 19216820
Description
Displays the local routing table Adds a route to the local routing table for destination network 19216820 Deletes the route from the routing table
Popular Route Commands
Troubleshooting with TCP/IP Utilities
FIGURE 6-30
The Linux arping utility returns the MAC address with ping responses
Now that you have an understanding of some of the popular TCP/IP utilities, let s look at some popular troubleshooting situations that can be solved with these utilities
CERTIFICATION OBJECTIVE 611
Troubleshooting with TCP/IP Utilities
The two most common TCP/IP problems are network connectivity and name resolution In this section, you will learn how to troubleshoot these problems and how to determine where the problems truly reside Given the following scenario, how do you troubleshoot the problem
Scenario You are trying to use a third-party application to access a remote computer via TCP/IP You are unable to connect to the remote server To properly troubleshoot this problem, you must know where to begin Most communication problems with TCP/IP can be categorized as one of the following:
Basic network connectivity problem Name resolution problem
6:
TCP/IP Utilities
It is very easy to determine which problem is occurring in a given situation Start by trying to access the resource via the IP address rather than the hostname by pinging the IP address For example, if the problem is related to name resolution, pinging the hostname might not work, but pinging the IP address will This indicates that, because you can communicate with the IP address but not the hostname, you are having name-resolution problems If you cannot access the resource via the IP address, this indicates a connectivity problem the system does not exist or it is turned off, or you have a network problem
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