Network Protocols and Standards in Software

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Connection-oriented Communication
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Connection-oriented communication ensures reliable delivery of data from the sender to the receiver Connection-oriented services must ensure that data is sent reliably across the network When establishing these services, the protocol must perform some sort of handshaking function Handshaking takes place at the beginning of a communication session During handshaking, the two computers determine the rules for communication, such as transmission speed and which ports to use Handshaking also determines the proper way to terminate the session when finished This ensures that communication ends in an orderly manner A session is a reliable dialog between two computers Because connection-oriented services can provide reliable communication, they are used when two computers need to communicate in a session Sessions are maintained until the two computers decide that they are finished communicating A session is just like a telephone call You set up a telephone call by dialing (handshaking), speak to the other person (exchange data), say Goodbye, and hang up when finished
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Connectionless Communication
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Connectionless communication is a form of communication in which the sending system does not introduce itself it just fires the data off Also, the destination computer does not notify the source when the information is received This type of communication can be unreliable because there is no notification to guarantee delivery Connectionless communication can be faster than connection-oriented communication because the overhead of managing the session is not there, and after the information is sent, there is no second step to ensure proper receipt of information
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Layer 3:the network Layer
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The network layer is responsible for managing logical addressing information in the packets and the delivery, or routing, of those packets by using information stored in a routing table The routing table is a list of available destinations that are stored in memory on the routers (more on routing in 5) The network layer is responsible for working with logical addresses The logical addresses are address types that are used to uniquely identify a system on the network, but at the same time identify the network that system resides on This is
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The OSI Model
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unlike a MAC address (the physical address burned into the network card), because a MAC address just gives the system a unique address and does not specify or imply what network the system lives on The logical address is used by network-layer protocols to deliver the packets to the correct network In our example, the request is coming from a web browser and destined for a web server, both of which are applications that run on TCP/IP At this point, the network layer will add the An example of a logical source address (the IP address of the sending address is an IP address, which might take system) and the destination address (the IP the form of 192168324 An IP address is address of the destination system) to the packet also known as a layer-3 address so that the receiving system will know where the packet came from
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Layer 2:the Data Link Layer
The data link layer is responsible for converting the data from a packet to a pattern of electrical bit signals that will be used to send the data across the communication medium On the receiving system, the electrical signals will be converted to packets by the data link layer and then passed up to the network layer for further processing The data link layer is divided into two sublayers:
n Logical link control (LLC)
Is responsible for error correction and control
functions
n Media access control (MAC)
Determines the physical addressing of the hosts It also determines how the host places traffic on the medium, for example CSMA/CD versus Token Passing
The MAC sublayer maintains physical device addresses (commonly referred to as MAC addresses) for communicating with other devices on the network These physical addresses are burned into the network cards and constitute the low-level address used to determine the source and destination of network traffic In our example, once the sending system s network layer appends the IP address information, the data link layer will append An example of a MAC the MAC address information for the sending address is 00-02-3F-6B-25-13, which is and receiving systems This layer will also also known as a layer-2 address prepare the data for the wire by converting the
2:
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