Networking Components in Software

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MAU; you will then ring out of the second MAU and ring in to the third MAU Remember to ring out of the last one and ring in to the first MAU Bridges and switches are examples of layer-2 devices A bridge is responsible for filtering network traffic by sending the data only to the network segment where the destination system resides The bridge builds a bridging table, which has a list of destinations A switch has replaced the network hub nowadays, and it filters traffic by sending data only to the port on the switch where the destination system is connected You can increase network performance dramatically by changing your network hubs to switches A number of switches support VLAN capabilities A VLAN is used to create virtual networks out of ports on one or more switches When data is broadcast on the VLAN, it is sent only to members of the VLAN, not the entire switch Systems can communicate only with other systems on their VLAN and cannot communicate with systems on other VLANs without the use of router Some other popular networking components are routers, gateways, and firewalls Routers are layer-3 devices that are responsible for sending data from one network to another A gateway is responsible for converting data from one format to another so that the data can be understood on both sides of the gateway A firewall is a device that stops traffic from passing through it, protecting private network resources
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network interface Cards
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q Network interface cards (NICs) function by converting parallel data from
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the computer to a serial bit stream sent on the network
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q The computer must have a software driver installed to enable it to interact
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with the NIC, just as it must for any other peripheral device
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number that is used to determine where the data is being sent and where it is coming from The MAC address also is known as a layer-2 address and looks like 00-0D-60-48-53-9E
q A computer bus is the term used for the speed and type of interface the
computer uses with various types of interface cards and equipment Popular bus architectures are ISA, PCI, and PCMCIA for laptops When you install a network card, you will need to be familiar with what bus slot you will place the card into
q The network card uses a transceiver to pick up the electrical signals and send
electrical signals on the wire There are two types of transceivers: built in and external The transceivers for twisted-pair and thinnet usually are built into the network card, whereas the transceiver for thicknet is usually an external one
q When you are configuring the network card, you may need to specify the
transfer rate so that it supports the device you are connecting to You also may need to specify the transceiver you intend to use, the transmission type, and whether to use half duplex or full duplex
q Simplex transmissions allow data to be sent in only one direction Half
duplex allows data to be sent and received, but not at the same time Full duplex allows data to be sent and received at the same time
Hubs, Maus, and repeaters
q Hubs are the central location to which all cabling must connect in most
topologies
q When exam time comes, remember the difference between an active hub and
a passive hub An active hub contains electronic components to boost the signal A passive hub does not
3:
Networking Components
q A multistation access unit (MAU) is a device to which multiple workstations
are connected in order to communicate on a Token Ring network
q Because the signal gets weaker over distance, repeaters are used to regenerate
the signal so that it can continue in its travels
q Hubs, MAUs, and repeaters are layer-1 devices
bridges and switches
q A bridge is used to create multiple segments on the network The bridge will
forward network traffic only to the destination segment and not to all segments, thus acting as a filtering device to improve network performance
q A switch filters network traffic by sending data only to the port on the switch
where the destination system resides
q Switches are replacing hubs, and network administrators who wish to im-
prove network performance should replace their hubs with switches
q Some switches support virtual LANs (VLANs) A VLAN is a group of ports
on the switch that make up their own logical network Systems on a particular VLAN can communicate only with other systems on the same VLAN unless a router is used The VLAN also acts as a broadcast domain, because broadcast traffic is sent only to ports in the VLAN where the sender of the broadcast traffic exists
q Bridges and switches are layer-2 devices
routers and brouters
q A router is a layer-3 device that sends data from one network to another us-
ing a layer-3 address such as an IP address
q Routers are used by routable protocols such as IPX/SPX, TCP/IP, and
AppleTalk
q A brouter is a device that combines a bridge and a router The brouter will
act as a router for routable protocols but will act as a bridge for nonroutable protocols such as NetBEUI
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gateways and security Devices
q A gateway is a device that is used to join dissimilar environments together q The gateway converts data from one side of the gateway to a format that the
other side of the gateway will understand
q A firewall is a device that blocks all network traffic from passing through
the firewall in order to protect private network resources The firewall may be configured to allow selected traffic to pass through For example, most companies have a web server that publishes their web site, so they will need to allow HTTP traffic to pass through the firewall
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