Subnetting and Routing in Software

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Subnetting and Routing
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The routing table displays the new route learned through RIP
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igrP
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Another example of a distance vector routing protocol is the Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) IGRP is a classful routing protocol that was built by Cisco, so you will only use it on networks where you have only Cisco routers IGRP was designed to improve on RIP limitations; it has a maximum hop count of 255 and uses the concepts of an autonomous system (AS) An autonomous system is a grouping of routers that share routing table information Routers using IGRP will only share the routes with other routers in the AS Another improvement is that the full routing table is advertised every 90 seconds instead of 30 seconds as is the case with RIP To enable IGRP on your Cisco router, you type the following commands:
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ROUTERA> enable ROUTERA# configure terminal ROUTERA(config)# router igrp 10 ROUTERA(config-router)# network 19216810 ROUTERA(config-router)# network 19216820
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RIP and IGRP are examples of distance vector routing protocols
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In this code listing you will notice that to enable IGRP on a Cisco router is similar to enabling RIP The difference is that when you enable IGRP, you specify the AS number for the router In this case I have used 10, so any other router with an AS number of 10 will receive routing information for the 19216810 and 19216820 networks
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Dynamic Routing Protocols
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The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is known as an exterior gateway protocol that is responsible for sharing routing table information with routers outside your autonomous system The protocols discussed before this are known as interior gateway protocols that are responsible for sharing routing tables within your autonomous system (or network) BGP is designed to send changes made to the routing table when the change occurs versus at a regular interval like RIP BGP only sends the change, while other routing protocols such as RIP send the entire table BGP is also a classless routing protocol that supports CIDR BGP is a newer version of the Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)
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Link state
Link state routing protocols are a little more advanced than distance vector routing protocols in the sense that a link state routing protocol knows about the entire network topology A link state protocol is responsible for monitoring the state of the link between the routers This link state information is then used to determine the optimal route to a destination network Although protocols such as RIP have knowledge of neighboring routers, link state protocols have knowledge of the entire network topology and multicast the routing table information to the entire network One of the benefits of the link state routing protocols is that if a link is down, that information is stored in the routing table and that pathway will not be used Because a distance vector routing protocol does not store link state information, it is possible that it will not know of a link that is unavailable for some time and it could still send traffic through that pathway
osPf
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an example of a link state protocol OSPF is an industry-standard protocol, which means that it is available to routers built by different manufacturers and you can use it as a protocol to share routing information between the dissimilar routers Like IGRP, OSPF uses autonomous systems, but it also has the capability of dividing the AS into logical groups called areas OSPF supports VLSM and has an unlimited hop count
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Subnetting and Routing
is-is
The intermediate system to intermediate system (IS-IS) routing protocol competes with OSPF by being a link state routing protocol for inside the network (interior gateway) IS-IS was developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and has become an industry-standard protocol, although not as popular as OSPF Like OSPF, IS-IS uses a link state algorithm to maintain status information on all the links OSPF and IS-IS are and routes on the network so that each router examples of link state routing protocols running the IS-IS protocol will have knowledge of the entire network topology
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