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601 602 603 604 605 606 607 ARP Telnet NBTSTAT Tracert Netstat IPCONFIG and WINIPCFG FTP 608 609 610 611 Ping and Hping2 NSLOOKUP and DIG Other TCP/IP Utilities Troubleshooting with TCP/IP Utilities Two-Minute Drill Self Test
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any utilities are available to troubleshoot TCP/IP connectivity problems Most utilities are public domain and are included with the TCP/IP protocol stack provided with the operating system that you are using This also means that the utilities may vary slightly, depending on the operating system being used For example, to view your TCP/IP setting on a Windows server, you would use IPCONFIG, whereas on a Linux box you would use ifconfig each of which may support different command-line switches Although these utilities generally provide very basic functions, they will prove to be invaluable when troubleshooting network problems In the first part of this chapter, we discuss the most commonly used TCP/IP troubleshooting tools, and in the final section, we look at how these tools can be used to help troubleshoot common networking problems The following list provides a brief description of each utility discussed in this chapter along with its core functions be sure to know these for the exam:
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Displays and modifies the local ARP cache Remote terminal emulation, administration, and troubleshooting Used to troubleshoot NetBIOS over TCP/IP connections Traces and reports on the route to a remote computer Displays statistics for current TCP/IP connections Displays current IP configuration information
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Enables file transfers between remote computers
Ping Verifies hostname, host IP address, and physical connectivity to a
remote TCP/IP computer
CERTIFICATION OBJECTIVE 601
As discussed in 3, network interface cards (NICs) have a hardware address, or MAC address, burned into the network card itself When you communicate from one system to another, you normally are familiar with the IP address of the host with which you want to communicate, but underneath the hood, the systems must use the physical MAC address to send and receive data the problem being, how
does one system find out the MAC address of the other system so that it can send the data across the network The answer ARP The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) was designed to provide a mapping from the logical TCP/IP addresses to the physical MAC addresses Address resolution is the process of resolving addresses or converting from one type of address to another In the case of ARP, the logical address (layer-3 address) is being converted to the MAC address (layer-2 address) by a broadcast out on the network With ARP, the sending computer yells out on the network, Whoever has this IP address, I need your MAC address! This broadcast is sent out on the wire, and every host looks at the broadcast data The host with that IP address will reply with its MAC address The address resolution process is complete once the original computer has received the MAC address information of the destination system, and is then able to send data, as shown in Figure 6-1 ARP maintains the protocol rules for making this translation and providing address conversion in both directions, from a layer-3 address to a layer-2 address (ARP), and from a layer-2 address to a layer-3 address (Reverse ARP) as shown in Figure 6-2 A utility by the same name is available for Windows- and Linux-based
FIGURE 6-1
The ARP process
Whoever has the IP address of 192168110, I need your MAC address so I can send you data!
That is not my IP
Workstation A
Workstation D
That is not my IP
That is not my IP Oh, that is my IP address! Hey Workstation A, my MAC address is 00-09-4B-4C-C1-59! Workstation C Workstation B Server
6:
TCP/IP Utilities
FIGURE 6-2
ARP is used to convert the logical address to a physical address
operating systems This utility is used to display and modify entries within the ARP cache, which is where the addresses that have been resolved are stored for future reference ARP is defined in-depth in RFC 826
Remember that ARP translates the IP address (layer-3 address) to the MAC address (layer-2 address)
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