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We considered in the previous subsections very large goal les, accessed using multiple attributes As part of most databases many small les have to be maintained as well Examples of such les are the lexicons which translate from a numeric code to a string for output, for instance, a disease code to a disease name In some applications there may be several dozens of such lexicons These many small les are e ectively accessed directly A technique using a common access mechanism, as sketched in Fig 4-34, can be used to provide a single access mechanism for multiple les The goal data are in separate les They may be maintained simply as sequential les and periodically reorganized A batch update of the direct pointer le can be combined with a purge of the previous pointers pertaining to a given goal le
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A Common Key-to-Address Transformation for Multiple Files Replicated Pointer-Lists to Distributed Data Another form of this technique can be used in distributed systems It may be e ective to partition a single large le into fragments which will reside on the processor of a site where the data is used the most or where updates are executed An example is the employees le of a company having multiple locations A pointer-list to all records of the le can be replicated at all locations so that any record in any fragment can be fetched All pointer-lists have to be updated when an employee is added or leaves, but remain unchanged when a pay or work status attribute is updated
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Here we have cases where the earlier de nition of a le has been violated It now is di cult to tell whether we are dealing with one, three, four, or even six les The determination of number of les in these examples is left to the taste of the reader
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4-6-3 Serial File Access Methods which use indirection by hashing to pointer-lists allow placing the data records sequentially according to one attribute Serial processing of such a le by one attribute is now possible Insertion, however, is now di cult, so that much of the exibility of a direct-access le is lost The use of a B-tree structured data le can keep updates convenient and provide seriality in one dimension In order to provide serial access according to multiple dimensions, the goalrecord le may be organized as a ring structure Flexibility of retrieval has been regained at some cost in complexity This combination of direct access and rings is found only in database systems, since procedural management of the complex structure is beyond the ambition of most programmers Without pointer-lists direct access is provided for only one attribute, and this is a restriction of many codasyl systems If more general direct access is provided, the update process has to maintain simultaneously pointer-lists
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and change the ring pointers The awkwardness of update may make the batch reorganization technique presented in Sec 3-5, Eq 3-89 appropriate here 4-6-4 Partial-Match Retrieval with Direct Access In basic direct les, access capability is restricted to one attribute If intermediate pointer-lists are used, as described in Sec 4-6-2, then access becomes possible by any of a variety of attributes These pointer-lists can become the source for partialmatch query processing The buckets that are created in the pointer-lists will contain TIDs for speci c attribute-name and value combinations If collision chains are maintained all identical entries will be on one chain; some irrelevant ones may be chained in as well and have to be removed based on their key value The sets of TIDs obtained can be merged for partial-match retrieval, so that selection can be accomplished prior to accessing the goal le The procedure can be visualized using Fig 4-35 and compared with Fig 4-12, where indexes were used We note that ranges of values are not supported unless the complications of additional serial access structures (Sec 4-6-3) are accepted The attribute values are hence made discrete; the Price, for instance, is given here as two distinct truncated values {31 000, 32 000} rather than as {31 000 33 000} in the indexed case of Sec 4-2-5 The information loss from truncation increases the number of collisions The accessing and merging of many buckets can still be costly An obvious approach to rapid direct partial-match access is to develop hash functions and pointer-lists which permit immediate retrieval of records in response to queries which specify multiple attributes in their search argument Any or all combinations of more than one attribute, as were considered for indexes in Sec 42-5, may be de ned and added to the a pointer-lists for the single attributes
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