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Some additional storage capacity is needed for operating systems and programs The parameters n, R, W, uD are probably di erent for each le, but in this chapter we consider storage as if it were a single le to keep the notation simpler The value D provides the initial estimate of the storage needs for a system 5-3-2 Components The primary hardware components of a system to provide storage of data are of course the storage devices, typically disks, themselves We will in this section also consider the devices required to attach disks to the processors, controllers and channels The performance and cost of a complete storage system are a ected by the performance and costs of controllers and channels as well as the performance and costs of the disks Databases often require multiple disks and somtimes multiple controllers and channels as well If the quantity D exceeds the capacity of one of the available disk units, multiple units will be employed The value of the storage parameter Davailable is rounded to an integer multiple of the capacity of the devices to be used, unless we can convince others to purchase the remnant
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If the entire computer system is to be selected for a speci c database, there may be much freedom in equipment selection In general it is desirable to select storage devices so that one or few disks will satisfy the storage needs without the complexity of many units Backup and archiving capacity is also needed now In most computers, disks are not directly coupled to the processors but require a controller A controller may be able to handle 2, 4, 8, or 16 disk units If many disks are to be used, there will be more than one controller On the larger computers, controllers are connected to the processor by channels, which provide the data path into the processor memory Multiple channels may also be used, not so much in order to provide the connection capability, but rather to provide multiple simultaneous data access paths, giving a greater bandwidth into the computer Figure 5-5 sketches the organization of the hardware components for a storage system 5-3-3 Distribution and Replication of Data Multiple processors are found in an increasing number of computer systems When the processors are closely coupled, the storage can be shared, so that the data can be distributed The bene ts of having multiple processors, from the database point of view, are increased computational capability and backup in case of processor failures If protection is required for storage-device failures, storage needs to be replicated Replication is common when processors are not closely coupled When the processors are remote from each other, the storage facilities are not shared in the same manner Access to remote sites is indirect, via communication lines and the remote processor We do not nd direct connections to remote storage devices useful, unless the storage device is used for remote input or output, and this situation is not appropriate for databases
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Distributed operations distinguish local and remote access, and transactions may be decomposed into subtransactions containing requests for distinct sites A local request is processed as before, but a request to access remote data has to be communicated rst to a remote processor That processor obtains the result and returns it to the originator The capability of remote lines is an order of magnitude less than that of disk devices, ie, bttcomm disks , so that the balance of a system design changes con btt siderably when it is distributed In order to overcome slow access to remote sites, some of the data may be replicated Replication increases the cost of update but improves retrieval dramatically Data that are frequenty read and infrequently updated are prime candidates for replication at the sites where the queries originate If replication is used, the storage demands D increase With these considerations, we can estimate the types and number of components needed to satisfy the storage requirements for the database Since the actual design parameters are not yet known, one can obtain a range of devices needed by establishing a range of the storage capacity needed, estimating the requirements at a low level of waste, free space, and redundancy (say W = 0, uD = 80%) Dlow , and at a high level (maybe W = R, uD = 25%) Dhigh of these conditions 5-3-4 System Choice Once the range of storage requirements is de ned, we can limit the evaluation of alternative systems to an appropriate range Since a similar range of disk devices is available from many manufacturers, we can concentrate initially on types of storage units, and avoid selection of a speci c vendor We will select from the alternatives a le con guration which promises minimum cost Figure 5-6 shows cost estimates for three storage-system hardware combinations related to capacity Discontinuities exist in these cost functions because of disk type alternatives, controller increments, and choice of reasonable channel assignments Since an approximate range for the storage requirements has been established, only a segment of the curve is of interest Three outcomes are possible: 1 The actual storage cost does not change at all within the range of capacities being considered The high limit should be reasonable and adequate for the foreseeable future A speci c le design can be chosen on the basis of other parameters 2 There is a signi cant jump of the cost function in the range of interest One can attempt to design the le system to remain at the low side of the jump Careful evaluation is needed to assure that in the worst case the storage Dhigh will never exceed the capacity at the jump The selection of le-design choices will be constrained The alternative is to play it safe, acquire the higher-capacity device, and use the excess capacity to increase performance Many le-organization methods, as B-trees and direct les, respond well to increased space 3 Many jumps appear within the range being considered This situation is frequently true for a large database system This means that le cost is incremental, and that there is only an economic storage constraint in choosing a le method in addition to the performance requirements We will discuss in Sec 5-4-6 the estimation of the incremental cost of entire systems
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