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a sector, a number of sectors, a formatted (or soft)-sector, a track, or a softwarede ned portion of a track, will be a convenient xed size unit for data transfer A block then is a collection of coded characters or values, of a xed size within a computer system or part of a system, which is moved as a unit between the storage devices and the memory for processing Once the right block is found, it will be read completely in order to obtain the error checking-and-correction information for the block A block is the prime hardware data unit considered throughout this book The data units that programs manipulate, and submit to the le system for reading or writing, are called records Section 2-2-4 will discuss the transformation of blocks to records
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Most les and many databases use one single, prede ned block size Use of the same block size on di erent devices with di ering track sizes can cause loss of storage space, but a careful selection of a block size which ts well into all devices can minimize this loss Typical block sizes range from a a few hundred to ten-thousand bytes The xed block size reduces complexity in the device-oriented programs The user programs will still have to deal with a variety of xed and variable records The selection of the optimal size of a block depends on many factors, and in turn the size a ects le system performance in a critical fashion This chapter will discuss the factors which directly relate hardware performance to block size, but throughout the rst half of the book the block-size parameter B will appear Records, the data units required for processing, vary in size from a few to thousands of characters A large block size causes more irrelevant data to be moved around when a record is needed and requires more memory A small block size means that more separate block-access requests have to be made to collect the data required for a task The trade-o of these ine ciencies depends on the needs of the application and the design of the transaction programs Section 4-2-4 presents an optimization analysis for the block size for indexes We can now discuss hardware performance in terms of accessing blocks within tracks Tracks and cylinders are partitions of storage determined only by the design of disk unit hardware 2-2-1 Seek Time
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The seek time s is the time required to position the access mechanism over the proper track Figure 2-6 shows the seek times required to move over various track distances for a moving-head disk, here an old model of the ibm 2314 For this device the relationship of distance traveled and time taken for this travel is not at all linear On many modern disks the seek times can be approximated by a linear relationship of the form sc + i, where sc is an initial startup time, is the time to move between adjacent tracks, and i is the distance traveled in terms of intertrack spaces traversed Most disk units are designed so that the time to move to the nearest track, s1 = sc + , is less than the time for one revolution This minimizes the delay for reading cylinders sequentially
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To avoid the pain of actually evaluating travel distances for individual disk accesses we will use an average seek time s whenever a seek is encountered Often an average value for the seek time is provided by the manufacturer It should be based on a uniform access distribution over all tracks A lower average seek time can be obtained if important and highly active les are placed on a few adjoining cylinders In such cases it can be useful to calculate the corresponding expected average seek time
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Derivation of an Average Seek Time To demonstrate the computation of the average seek time, the assumption of random distribution of track access will be used here, but other distributions can be handled similarly In the case of a uniform random distribution, the likelihood of travel is equal from any cylinder to any cylinder The distribution of distances to be traveled will not be equally likely
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