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11-5-2 Locating Secondary Errors When an error which caused an improper change to a le has been detected, a scan through the activity lists will nd the transactions which used the bad block The a ected transactions can be then reentered automatically and correct results can be produced If blocks were updated by transactions which read bad blocks prior to the write, further restoration of the le is required The identi cation of all blocks and
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all messages a ected can be produced by an iterative search of the transaction log Comparison of the block or the result which was written with the correct version, to ensure that there was indeed an error, can avoid needless duplication and prune the search tree for secondary errors Since a transaction which uses internal data, in general, updates only a few records, the list of secondarily a ected transactions should be small, especially when an error is detected early If the damage is extensive, rollback restoration by replacing blocks using before-images may not be practical, and a forward restoration starting from a previous le snapshot which uses after-images may be a better procedure The decision of rollback versus forward restoration may be automated, although one should hope that the decision is not frequently required The activity thread created for le-restoration purposes not only provides the means to recreate the le, to notify users, and to correct erroneous messages but also can aid in the maintenance of le integrity, as will be discussed in Sec 13-2 11-5-3 Application of Corrections If the extent of damage is limited, a rollback process can be used The damaged portions of the le are restored by rst applying any before-images to the blocks in error and then replaying the incomplete transactions The output from these transactions is suppressed, if possible, to avoid duplicating results that have previously been sent to the users If this capability to select output does not exist, this output is marked as being due to an error-correction procedure and the user will have to determine its relevancy If the damage is great, one may have to start from a backup copy of the le and apply all after-images to it in chronological sequence, except those associated with incomplete transactions Incomplete transactions are again replayed An overview of the process is sketched in Fig 11-10 A program for the recovery process should be idempotent, that is, be able to restart itself at any stage, so that failures during recovery will not become disasters During recovery the systems tend not be stable, and failure rates higher than during routine operations If the restoration is major, it may be wise to copy the portion of the database to which corrections will be applied since restoration procedures, being rarely used, have a substantial chance of failure 11-5-4 Recovery in Distributed Systems We considered up to now program and input errors, as well as problems due to processor failures In distributed systems we also have to consider communication failures These change several assumptions made earlier Systemwide operation A part of the distributed system may have failed Transactions can still be submitted at some nodes, and some may be able to complete while others cannot Failure knowledge A block may be transmitted over a communication line for writing or a remote le The sending transaction may not know for a long time if the block has been correctly and safely stored The increased parallel activity from multiple nodes and from the longer times needed
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to complete transactions increases failure risks in distributed databases A further consideration is the greatly increased use of replicated data in distributed databases (Sec 7-5-1)
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Operating an Incomplete Distributed Database A motivation for distribution is autonomy of operation in the distinct nodes Having replicated data permits some continued operation when a node has failed or if the database has been partitioned into independent parts because of communication breakdowns The independence
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