gtin calculator excel Sec 12-8 12-8-1 Anonymity in Software

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Separation of the individual s identi cation from the data can provide the required anonymity but may impair aspects of the research If, for instance, responses are gathered without identi cation data, the lack of a respondent s pro le can make interpretation of the responses di cult
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An example of the desirability to have respondent information occurs when only educated individuals return a mailed query about the value of a certain TV program, because of some erudite language used in the questionnaire
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A separate data response and identi cation response, which cannot be linked, allows determination of who answered, and allows followup to rally participants who did not respond However, no recourse exists to correct incomplete or inconsistent responses once the identi cation has been separated A reference number can be used with the data which link data responses to an individual, allowing determination of individuals through the responsible researcher only for followup To protect the respondents, at least the reference numbers on the identi cation responses are destroyed when the collection is completed If a long-term study requires multiple occasions of data entry by respondents, the identi cation le remains a liability If the participant in a study has the option to reinitiate followup, the participant can keep the reference number The participant will be warned that if the number is lost no further followup is possible To avoid the problem of loss a randomization procedure can create a reference number from an arbitrary identi cation sumbitted by the person Hashing does not allow tracing of the individual from the reference number kept with the data The identi cation string invented by the participant must not be traceable and must be destroyed after the reference number is obtained Some consistency of the individual is required here, and there is always a nite chance of con icting reference numbers Data for con ict resolution may not be available (see Sec 3-5)
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12-8-2 Protected Linkage The methods summarized above provide techniques which are useful before critical information enters a data le These tools have been extensively used because of the deserved distrust of computer security mechanisms In many studies the need exists for the researchers to contact participants, so that an identi cation le has to be maintained At other times data required for processing can contain enough information to identify individuals, or identi cation data remains necessary to allow the merging of data from other sources than the respondent A solution to this problem is the removal of the identi cation le outside the scope of possible intruders Such a removal has been carried out by contracting with a data-processing agency in another country on a study where government interference was feared Instead of removing the identi cation itself, a linkage le of matching reference numbers of data records and reference numbers of identi cation
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records was created and removed This concept is sketched in Fig 12-11 Matching,
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when required, is carried out by the foreign operator, but the contract provides that only unidenti ed data are returned The contract also speci es that the linkage le itself may not be returned, even to the contractees If data are to be matched at an insecure agency, but one is con dent about one s own operation, enciphering of data other than the identi cation eld may provide privacy 12-8-3 Pollution If the data are to be used only for statistical analysis, a systematic modi cation or pollution of the data may provide, if not privacy, at least protection from legal accountability The modi cation should be such that statistical results remain valid but that individual data items cannot be ascertained A procedure of this type adds a normally distributed random number to a continuous observed data value If the standard deviation of the normal is known, most statistical procedures can be used and their results adjusted A lower level of con dence of the tested hypotheses is bound to occur because of the added degree of freedom in the data, but an increase in the number of observations can compensate for this loss With binary data, such as yes/no responses, a certain number of the responses may be reversed on a random basis, which again can be accounted for in subsequent analyses An individual record of such a le, while possibly embarrassing, is no longer of legal value The need to keep data private is an important responsibility in data-processing The burden can be diminished by avoiding the collection of unnecessary data or unnecessary data elements When data has lost its information value, it should be destroyed
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