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835 Multi-Point Call Support
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In order to implement a broadcast multi-point call of the type illustrated in Figure 8-10, the switching function need only make use of the technologies we have already discussed: a crosspoint switch matrix can be set to deliver the same input to multiple inputs, or multiple outputs can be instructed to source their media stream from the same time slot on a switch bus
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Figure 8-10 Broadcast multi-point call
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However, if the switching fabric is called upon to construct any other type of multi-point call (rather than having the multi-point call synthesized externally as described in 3, section 336) it must perform a mixing operation in which all of the media streams associated with the call are mixed together with the result being the media stream delivered to all the appropriate media stream channels In the announcement scenario shown in Figure 8-11 the media stream channel associated with D2C2 carries a media stream which is the result of mixing the media stream received from D3 and D1 (and optionally from D2 itself)
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Figure 8-11 Announcement multi-point call
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The mixing, or conferencing, process is of course implementation dependent It could be as simple as suppressing all but the loudest input, it could involve the summing of all inputs after some equalization function, or it could involve performing a separate mix of the inputs for each device in order to eliminate any echo from the given device's media stream Multi-point calls are applicable to voice calls only Audio is a unique data type in that many media streams containing audio can be simply summed together to produce a useful audio stream in which all of the original audio media data can still be discerned The same cannot be done with digital data streams or modulated data streams Adding these data streams together would simply corrupt the data Synthesizing multi-point calls for digital data and large numbers of voice calls is described in the sidebar "Synthesizing Multi-Point Calls"
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836 Distributed Switching Implementations
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Traditionally, the switching function has been implemented as a single monolithic server known as a switch so it was both a logical and physical hub of a telephone system Newer implementations involve distributed switching architectures where the media stream interconnection resources are compartmentalized and physically distributed The physical components are collectively still a switch but individually they are servers that communicate over a network The benefits of this modular approach are greater flexibility, the ability to localize the impact of a failure, and the ability to locate the interconnection resources closer to endpoints to simplify wiring
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In a multi-point call in which there are two or more bidirectional media streams, switching resources take the media streams from all connections to the call, mix them together, and deliver the result to all of the participants that are receiving a media stream from the call In situations where the switching resources cannot combine two or more calls into a multipoint call (because they are digital data calls, for example), multi-point calls can be synthesized using a series of point-to-point calls in a centralized or distributed fashion In the centralized approach, all of the participating devices establish point-to-point calls to a conference bridge, which is a special piece of equipment that is capable of decoding or interpreting the media stream sent from every participating device and intelligently mixing the media streams together Each participating device only sees a single other device in the pointto-point call it establishes to the conference bridge, but it receives a media stream specifically tailored to be the device's "view" of all of the other devices A conference bridge may handle just voice data (good for cutting down the noise on multi-point calls with many people), or may handle specific protocols using digital data, such as videoconferencing calls In fact, a sufficiently intelligent conference bridge (also called a multi-point control unit or MCU in the context of H320 videoconferencing) can mix caller types, so that a voice call to a conference bridge on which a videoconference was being hosted would hear a special mix of the audio from the videoconference but wouldn't see the video The distributed approach to synthesizing multi-point calls involves each participating device placing a call to every other device or using multicasting on networks where it is supported Multicast refers to the ability to use the network as a media stream interconnection that delivers the same media stream to multiple endpoints (or other switching resources) simultaneously in the same fashion that a timeslot is available to all the points on a given switch bus As with the conference bridge, the transmitters prepare a specific version of the media stream for each participant to which they are connected In the distributed case, however, it is the responsibility of each participant to do the appropriate "mixing" of the media streams being received so they can be presented as a single media stream to the person actually using the device in question
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