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Figure 8-36 Wireless circuit
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Wireless technologies establish links without cables The general model for wireless communication involves a wireless device that uses radio frequency or light frequency links to connect to a base station which, in turn, provides an access point to a particular wired or wireless network
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Air interface refers to the protocol stack, including the physical layer, associated with a given wireless implementation independent of the actual frequency or frequencies over which a given transmitter is programmed to operate
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One approach to implementing a wireless link is to use a pair of transceivers that operate in the infrared, or IR, spectrum The disadvantage of infrared is that it requires careful alignment of the two transmitter and receivers and the link will fail if something blocks or deflects the light beam between the transceivers The advantage of infrared is that it is harder to intercept an IR beam than it is to intercept radio frequency transmissions and is thus more secure
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Given the limitations of IR links, radio frequency, or RF, links represent the vast majority of wireless options Radio frequency provides the ability to travel much longer distances and to pass through obstacles However, aside from issues of eavesdropping, the ability for RF waves to propagate in all directions represents a significant issue when it comes to the sharing of RF spectrum Unlike deployments of wireline networking technologies, the laws of physics limit the number of wireless transmitters that can operate in a given space at the same time The density that can be achieved for a given system operating in a given area is a function of the transmission power of the transmitters, the total bandwidth available, and the bandwidth required per link Bandwidth is a public resource that is licensed by government regulators (for example, the FCC in the USA) and is carefully rationed among many competing technologies and application areas Wireless networks rely on maximizing density and optimizing the use of available bandwidth by: dividing coverage areas into cells with a base station in the center of each cell, and limiting the power of the transmissions within each cell to minimize the propagation of signals into other cells Another challenge in the use of radio frequencies is that different parts of the RF spectrum have different characteristics when it comes to passing through obstacles ranging from buildings to raindrops Air interface technologies vary in terms of their applicability to different cell sizes (from a few feet to many miles), in their applicability to a given part of the RF spectrum, and in terms of how they cope with interference from other RF transmissions
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While the list above represents a sampling of the many wireless offerings available, a comprehensive list would be too long to be practical Wireless network implementations are typically referenced in terms of: Air Interface technology (eg CDMA), or Frequency range allocated (eg 824-894 MHz), or Service name (eg Cellular, PCS)
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This leads to some confusion because a wide variety of air interfaces can be used to deliver a service (such as cellular) in a given frequency range In addition, there are a number of other very important wireless link attributes that can be used to classify and compare available wireless offerings Given the nature of this technology, all of these attribute categories overlap with one another to some extent, but each represents an important distinguishing characteristic between one scheme and another Shared vs Dedicated Wireless devices may be configured with dedicated spectrum so that, like a wired connection, there is effectively a dedicated link available to the device at all times For example, two microwave transmitters configured to communicate with one another will use an assigned, fixed frequency In most cases, however, wireless devices are placed into systems that share available bandwidth among all the users of a given base station When all the available spectrum associated with a given base station is in use, all other devices are blocked
Fixed vs Roaming The end device in a wireless link may be fixed or roaming Fixed wireless devices are rooted to one location, like a wireline device, but use a wireless link A popular use of fixed wireless links is in wireless local telephone loops in rural areas and other situations where laying cable is cost-prohibitive Examples of wireless technologies for fixed links include LMDS, MMDS, microwave, and infrared Where a fixed wireless link is appropriate, the technologies used typically require that the transceivers be carefully pointed at one another with a direct line of sight Roaming wireless devices are used by people on the move (on foot or in a vehicle) These devices actually switch between different wireless base stations as they move and must support being handed off between one base station and another FDM vs TDM vs Spread Spectrum Just as wireline telephony circuits options have evolved from analog to channelized digital facilities to packet-based wireless air interfaces have evolved through an analogous set of technologies Wireless frequency division multiplexing, FDM, involves dividing available frequencies into channels that can be assigned to a single analog media stream Analog cordless telephones and AMPS cellular phones are examples of wireless schemes that use FDM Wireless time division multiplexing, TDM, involves multiplexing a series of digital media streams into a single frequency range just as wireline TDM technology does GSM and TDMA are air interfaces that implement TDM Spread spectrum technology pools the entire time/frequency channel among all of the links using a specific block of RF spectrum CDMA is an air interface that uses spread spectrum technology
Packet vs Circuit A given air interface may be designed to permit transceivers to send in variably sized packets or as a continuous stream corresponding to a circuit IEEE 80211 is a wireless IP network scheme that provides an untethered alternative to a wired ethernet network for VoIP Frequency Band The use and allocation of RF bandwidth is dictated by different government agencies around the world The ability to use a particular telephone in a particular location is not only a function of the technology it uses but the frequency band in which that technology is allowed to operate in the particular location in question Frequency also determines the applicability of particular technologies to different applications High frequency RF transmissions (short wavelengths) travel in straight lines and are more susceptible to being blocked by everything from rain drops to buildings LMDS and microwave, for example use very high frequencies and thus are typically applicable to line of sight applications Service Name The marketing and regulatory names assigned to particular services are often quite confusing as they do not always relate to the corresponding air-interface or frequency allocation in obvious ways The following are examples of commonly used service names Cellular While the term cellular refers to any wireless network organized into cells to support the reuse of frequencies within a given service area, it is most frequently used to refer to a particular service offered by wireless carriers In North America this refers to the services offered by carriers in the cellular spectrum Likewise around the world, the definition of ''cellular" service is generally driven by spectrum usage and the applicable spectrum licensing agency
PCS In the US, despite the fact that the same digital air interface technologies (and thus the same services) can be offered in both the cellular spectrum and the PCS spectrum, the name PCS is given to those that are offered in the PCS band DCS-1800 DCS-1800 was the name given to the second generation of pan-european digital cellular service However, unlike the US, where the service name PCS is used to differentiate from cellular, DCS-1800 is used only to distinguish phones capable of operating in the new bands allocated for DCS-1800 but the service is still generally referred to as Cellular or GSN SMR Specialized mobile radio, or SMR, is yet another set of FCC licensed frequency bands A wide variety of carriers offer different services in the SMR bands, and some offer a mobile radio service that is identical in most ways to the functionality promised by digital cellular (telephony, paging, mobile fax and digital data, etc) but adds the benefits normally associated with two-way radio (the previously dominant technology in the SMR band)
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