15 Computer Telephony
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Computer telephony refers to all of the areas where off-the-shelf computer technologies are being used to implement the telephone system functionality described in section 14 This includes using off-the-shelf computer backplanes and buses, operating systems, application software, protocol stacks, and other reusable hardware and software modules to construct telephone system components Computer telephony represents a movement away from traditional legacy telephony implementations that were based on mechanical and electronic technologies developed by vendors themselves Arguably most modern proprietary telephone system equipment make use of the same electronic components and engineering practices found in computers, but the use of widely available, general purpose computer technologies is a recent development Computer telephony represents a shift from monolithic telephone systems to highly modular telephone systems as illustrated in Figure 1-7 Using off-the-shelf computer technology and development tools allows vendors to implement (or re-implement) administration, call processing, media processing, and even switching fabric functionality as independent software and / or hardware modules Fixed functionality call processing and media processing implementations are replaced by CTI and media services applications and servers that allow for customization and extension Likewise, administration and switching fabric implementations can be developed and installed as independent modules using mainstream computer technology
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Figure 1-7 Evolution of Computer Telephony
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The real promise of computer telephony is that customers can build and augment their telephone systems using modular components obtained from a wide variety of disparate vendors Ultimately system owners should be able to build telephone systems that are uniquely suited to their requirements Interoperability between modular components is not a direct benefit of CT technology itself However, CT permits the definition and implementation of interoperability specifications that determine the boundaries between modular products and drives the economics that allow new vendors to enter the world of modular (sometimes called "open") computer telephony
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16 Switching Fabric
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The foundation of any telephone systems is its switching fabric implementation A telephony switching fabric consists of the cabling, networking technology, controllers, and protocols used to communicate the voice (and other media) plus control information associated with telephone calls Telephony switching fabric implementations consist of two key aspects: Telephony switching network The telephony switching network is a logical network made up of all the telephone system components that transmit, receive, or interconnect media and/or signaling information and the components that manage the switching fabric Transmission networks Transmission networks are the underlying communication networks and links that provide the connectivity between components of the telephony switching network The switching fabric implementations in conventional telephone systems typically involve proprietary media stream switching hardware with connections for analog (POTS) and digital (T-1, ISDN, proprietary) transmission facilities The closed nature of these implementations limits the number of transmission networks that are directly supported and limits the flexibility or functionality provided by the telephony switching network In the field of switching fabric development, computer telephony involves using off-the-shelf computer bus technologies as well as software protocol stacks as the basis for a new generation of transmission networks, media stream interconnection components, open media transport, signaling, and control protocols For example, IP Telephony and other packet-based telephony switching fabrics deliver voice over IP networking infrastructures
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While computer telephony refers to the whole field of new generation telephone system implementations that draw on off-the-shelf computer technology, the term CTI has evolved to refer to just the call processing portion of computer telephony1-2 Specifically, CTI refers to the technologies used to build systems where one or more software applications running on computer platforms are integrated with the call processing functionality of a telephone system In a telephone system that is based entirely on computer telephony technology, CTI and call processing are effectively synonymous CTI: Bridging Computing and Telephony Until recently, the world of telephony technology and the world of computer technology have remained largely isolated from one another CTI refers to the ability to combine the products, services, and systems from these different technology areas, but it does not refer to a superset of computer and telephony technologies CTI technology is the bridge between these technology areas (Figure 1-8) CTI permits the development of solutions that further enhance traditional applications of these individual technologies Defining CTI The definition of CTI has remained vague for some time, but with the maturation of CTI technology a very concise definition of this term has emerged
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CT vs CTI The terms CT and CTI are often confused as the distinction is not literal The term CTI came to refer to the use of computer technology to access the call processing functionality of a telephone system because historically telephone systems were considered closed systems to which external computer equipment was integrated As CTI products are arguably the most functionally rich computer telephony products, this term continues to be used to distinguish call processing software and hardware from other computer telephony technologies
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