PART VI in Software

Printer Quick Response Code in Software PART VI

PART VI
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Man-in-the-Middle Attacks
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A man-in-the-middle attack, as the name implies, generally occurs when attackers are able to place themselves in the middle of two other hosts that are communicating Ideally, this is done by ensuring that all communication going to or from the target host is routed through the attacker s host (which can be accomplished if the attacker can compromise the router for the target host) The attacker can then observe all traffic before relaying it and can actually modify or block traffic To the target host, it appears that communication is occurring normally, since all expected replies are received Figure 13-8 illustrates this type of attack
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CompTIA Security+ All-in-One Exam Guide
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Figure 13-8 A man-in-the-middle attack
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The amount of information that can be obtained in a man-in-the-middle attack will obviously be limited if the communication is encrypted Even in this case, however, sensitive information can still be obtained, since knowing what communication is being conducted, and between which individuals, may in fact provide information that is valuable in certain circumstances
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Man-in-the-Middle Attacks on Encrypted Traffic
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The term man-in-the-middle attack is sometimes used to refer to a more specific type of attack one in which the encrypted traffic issue is addressed Public-key encryption, discussed in detail in 5, requires the use of two keys: your public key, which anybody can use to encrypt or lock your message, and your private key, which only you know and which is used to unlock or decrypt a message locked with your public key If you wanted to communicate securely with your friend Bob, you might ask him for his public key so you could encrypt your messages to him You, in turn, would supply Bob with your public key An attacker can conduct a man-in-the-middle attack by intercepting your request for Bob s public key and the sending of your public key to him The attacker would replace your public key with her public key, and she would send this on to Bob The attacker s public key would also be sent to you by the attacker instead of Bob s public key Now when either you or Bob encrypt a message, it will be encrypted using the attacker s public key The attacker can now intercept it, decrypt it, and then send it on by re-encrypting it with the appropriate key for either you or Bob Each of you thinks you are transmitting messages securely, but in reality your communication has been compromised Well-designed cryptographic products use techniques such as mutual authentication to avoid this problem
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Replay Attacks
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A replay attack occurs when the attacker captures a portion of a communication between two parties and retransmits it at a later time For example, an attacker might replay a series of commands and codes used in a financial transaction to cause the transaction to be conducted multiple times Generally replay attacks are associated with attempts to circumvent authentication mechanisms, such as the capturing and reuse of a certificate or ticket
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13: Types of Attacks and Malicious Software
The best way to prevent replay attacks is with encryption, cryptographic authentication, and time stamps If a portion of the certificate or ticket includes a date/time stamp or an expiration date/time, and this portion is also encrypted as part of the ticket or certificate, replaying it at a later time will prove useless, since it will be rejected as having expired EXAM TIP The best method for defending against replay attacks is through the use of encryption and short time frames for legal transactions Encryption can protect the contents from being understood, and a short time frame for a transaction prevents subsequent use
TCP/IP Hijacking
TCP/IP hijacking and session hijacking are terms used to refer to the process of taking control of an already existing session between a client and a server The advantage to an attacker of hijacking over attempting to penetrate a computer system or network is that the attacker doesn t have to circumvent any authentication mechanisms, since the user has already authenticated and established the session Once the user has completed the authentication sequence, the attacker can then usurp the session and carry on as if the attacker, and not the user, had authenticated with the system To prevent the user from noticing anything unusual, the attacker can decide to attack the user s system and perform a DoS attack on it, taking it down so that the user, and the system, will not notice the extra traffic that is taking place Hijack attacks generally are used against web and Telnet sessions Sequence numbers as they apply to spoofing also apply to session hijacking, since the hijacker will need to provide the correct sequence number to continue the appropriate sessions
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