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The Decentralized, Centralized Model
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In reality, most companies, and particularly large ones, use a combination approach Imagine a company with 100,000 employees and offices in 52 locations around the world It s not feasible for a single person or group to manage the rights and privileges of every user in an organization that large It s much more efficient to decentralize control away from the main corporate office and let each office location handle its own privilege management tasks Within each office, privilege management is usually centralized to a specific group of individuals (often the system administrators or security personnel) On a macro scale, the company as a whole is decentralized, while on a micro scale each office is centralized it just depends on the level at which you re examining the organization
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Auditing (Privilege, Usage, and Escalation)
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If you go through the trouble and effort of restricting access to certain resources and datasets, you will likely want to make sure only authorized individuals are able to gain access to those resources Chances are, you ll also want to know who accessed what resources, when they accessed the resources, and what they did When dealing with privilege management, auditing includes any actions or processes used to verify the assigned privileges and rights of a user, as well as any capabilities used to create and maintain a record showing who accessed a particular system and what actions they performed Records showing which users accessed a computer system and what actions they performed are called audit trails This section covers auditing as it pertains to three specific areas: privilege, usage, and escalation
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Privilege auditing is the process of checking the rights and privileges assigned to a specific account or group of accounts Each user account, group, and role is checked to see what rights and privileges are assigned to it These results are then compared to the expected results to see where the actual results and expected results differ Privilege auditing helps to find accounts that have been granted more privileges than they need, as well as accounts that have fewer privileges than they require By comparing expected to actual results, the auditor can determine which changes need to be made (such as the removal of certain accounts, putting users into new groups, taking them out of other groups, and so on) and which rights and privileges need to be adjusted Most organizations perform some type of privilege auditing, either formally or informally, on a regular basis How does privilege auditing enhance security Privilege auditing helps ensure that users have been granted the correct privileges and rights required to perform their jobs not too much access and not too little access Privilege auditing follows the trust but verify philosophy of double-checking each account, group, and role to ensure that administrators have performed their jobs correctly This is particularly important in
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19: Privilege Management
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large corporations or positions with a high rate of turnover or employee movement As an employee leaves or changes positions, her privileges and rights must be revoked or modified to ensure that her account is properly disabled (if she is leaving) or that her account has been adjusted to reflect her new position (if she is changing positions)
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Usage auditing is the process of recording who did what and when Usage auditing creates a record showing who has accessed specific computer systems and what actions that user performed during a given period of time Usage auditing can also be applied to datasets, specific applications, or databases, and it is very commonly used in accounting systems, transaction-based systems, and database management systems Usage auditing is usually performed by a process that records actions and stores them in a file for later analysis These files can be in plaintext or custom formats, or they can even be encrypted to prevent unauthorized access Figure 19-6 shows an example of the usage-auditing process on a Red Hat Linux system In Figure 19-6, you can see various processes starting, a user logging in, and actions being performed Each of these pieces of information can help a system administrator determine what happened on that system during that period of time In this example, we see an entry indicating the root user logged in on January 3 at 16:21:48 (4:21 PM) This tells us several things: Someone with knowledge of the password for the root account has accessed the system The login from 127001 tells us that the user logged in on the system s console, so he or she had physical access to the system The time of 4:21 PM tells us that the access occurred during business hours Usage auditing is very common in both UNIX and Windows operating systems Depending on the operating system and logging utility, the administrator can have a great deal of flexibility in what types of information are logged Figure 19-7 shows the Audit Policy options available in the Windows 2008 operating system As you can see, several audit policies can be enabled with success and failure criteria For example, you PART V