B: OSI Model and Internet Protocols in Software

Generate QR Code in Software B: OSI Model and Internet Protocols

Appendix B: OSI Model and Internet Protocols
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Figure B-1 OSI and Internet network models
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the direct communication path is shown as a bold line between the two physical layers All data between the boxes traverses this line The dotted lines between higher layers represent virtual connections, and the associated activities and protocols are also listed
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PART VI
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Figure B-2 Network model communication paths
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for most layers (the protocols are also listed in Table B-1) These dotted lines are virtual data does not actually cross them, although it appears as though it does The true path of data is down to the physical layer and back up to the same layer on another machine
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Application Layer
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The application layer is the typical interface to the actual application being used This is the layer of the communication stack that is typically responsible for initiating the request for communication For example, Internet Explorer is an application program that operates in the application layer using HTTP to move data between systems This layer represents the user s access to the system and the network While it appears that the application is communicating directly with an application on another machine, this is actually a virtual connection The application layer is also sometimes referred to as layer 7 in the OSI model Several protocols are commonly found in the application layer, including Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) In the OSI model, the application layer actually communicates with the presentation layer only on its own machine In the Internet model, the immediate level below the application layer is the transport layer, and this is the only layer directly called by the application layer in this model As a result of the missing presentation and session layers in the Internet model, the functionality of these OSI layers is performed by the application layer The session layer functionality present in the Internet model s application layer includes the initiation, maintenance, and termination of logical sessions between endpoints in the network communication The session layer functionality also includes session level accounting and encryption services The presentation layer functionality of the OSI model is also included in the Internet model s application layer, specifically functionality to format the display parameters of the data being received Any other functions not specifically included in the lower layers of the Internet model are specifically included in the application layer
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Layer
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Commonly Used Protocols
Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data-link Physical
HTTP, SNMP, SMTP, FTP, Telnet XDR SSL, TLS TCP, UCP IP, ICMP IEEE 8023 (Ethernet), IEEE 8025 (Token Ring), ARP, RARP IEEE 8023 (Ethernet) hardware, IEEE 8025 (Token Ring) hardware
Table B-1 Common Protocols by OSI Layer
Appendix B: OSI Model and Internet Protocols
Presentation Layer
The presentation layer gets its name from its primary function: preparing for the presentation of data It is responsible for preparing the data for different interfaces on different types of terminals or displays so the application does not have to deal with this task Data compression, character set translation, and encryption are found in this layer The presentation layer communicates with only two layers the application layer above it and the session layer below it The presentation layer is also known as layer 6 of the OSI model
Session Layer
The primary responsibility of the session layer is the managing of communication sessions between machines The management functions include initiating, maintaining, and terminating sessions Managing a session can be compared to making an ordinary phone call When you dial, you initiate a session The session must be maintained in an open state during the call At the completion of the call, you hang up and the circuit must be terminated As each session can have its own parameters, the session layer is responsible for setting them up, including security, encryption, and billing or accounting functions The session layer communicates exclusively with the presentation layer above it and the transport layer below it The session layer is also known as layer 5 of the OSI model
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