B: OSI Model and Internet Protocols in Software

Maker QR Code in Software B: OSI Model and Internet Protocols

Appendix B: OSI Model and Internet Protocols
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TCP is the primary transport protocol used on the Internet today, accounting for more than 80 percent of packets on the Internet TCP begins by establishing a virtual connection through a mechanism known as the TCP handshake This handshake involves three signals: a SYN signal sent to the target, a SYN/ACK returned in response, and then an ACK sent back to the target to complete the circuit This establishes a virtual connection between machines over which the data will be transported, and that is why TCP is referred to as being connection oriented TCP is classified as a reliable protocol and will ensure that packets are sent, received, and ordered using sequence numbers Some overhead is associated with the sequencing of packets and maintaining this order, but for many communications, this is essential, such as in e-mail transmissions, HTTP, and the like TCP has facilities to perform all the required functions of the transport layer TCP has congestion- and flow-control mechanisms to report congestion and other trafficrelated information back to the sender to assist in traffic-level management Multiple TCP connections can be established between machines through a mechanism known as ports TCP ports are numbered from 0 to 65,535, although ports below 1024 are typically reserved for specific functions TCP ports are separate entities from UDP ports and can be used at the same time
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UDP is a simpler form of transport protocol than TCP UDP performs all of the required functionality of the transport layer, but it does not perform the maintenance and checking functions of TCP UDP does not establish a connection and does not use sequence numbers UDP packets are sent via the best effort method, often referred to as fire and forget, because the packets either reach their destination or they are lost forever It offers no retransmission mechanism, which is why UDP is called an unreliable protocol UDP does not have traffic-management or flow-control functions as TCP does This results in much lower overhead and makes UDP ideal for streaming data sources, such as audio and video traffic, where latency between packets can be an issue Essential services such as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Domain Name Service (DNS) use UDP, primarily because of the low overhead When packets do get lost, which is rare in modern networks, they can be resent Multiple UDP connections can be established between machines via ports UDP ports are numbered from 0 to 65,535, although ports below 1024 are typically reserved for specific functionality UDP ports are separate entities from TCP ports and can be used at the same time
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PART VI
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IP is a connectionless protocol used for routing messages across the Internet Its primary purpose is to address packets with IP addresses, both destination and source, and
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to use these addresses to determine the next hop to which the packet will be transmitted As IP is connectionless, IP packets can take different routes at different times between the same hosts, depending on traffic conditions IP also maintains some traffic-management information, such as time-to-live (a function to give packets a limited lifetime) and fragmentation control (a mechanism to split packets en route if necessary) The current version of IP is version 4, referred to as IPv4, and it uses a 32-bit address space The newer IPv6 protocol adds significant levels of functionality, such as security, improved address space, 128 bits, and a whole host of sophisticated traffic-management options IPv4 addresses are written as four sets of numbers in the form vxyz, with each of these values ranging from 0 to 255 As this would be difficult to remember, a naming system for hosts was developed around domains, and DNS servers convert the host names, such as wwwietforg, to IP addresses, such as 4171686
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