excel vba qr code generator 6: Standards and Protocols in Software

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6: Standards and Protocols
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1 A RSA Laboratories created Public Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) 2 C The substitution cipher is not a component of PKI The substitution cipher is an elementary alphabet-based cipher 3 A An Attribute Certificate (AC) is used to grant permissions using rule-based, role-based, and rank-based access controls 4 D Transport Layer Security consists of the TLS Record Protocol, which provides security, and the TLS Handshake Protocol, which allows the server and client to authenticate each other 5 B The TLS Record Protocol provides connection security by using common encryption methods, such as DES 6 C The Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) provides a method for implementing a key exchange protocol and for negotiating a security policy 7 A During a security association, the client and the server will list the types of encryption of which they are capable and will choose the most secure encryption standard that they have in common 8 A The entity requesting a security association will request an initiator cookie 9 A The Certificate Management Protocol is used to establish a CA 10 D XML Key Management Specification (XKMS) allows services to manage PKI via XML, which is interoperable across different vendor platforms 11 C Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) is a secure e-mail standard Other popular standards include Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and OpenPGP 12 C SSL s well-known port is 443 SSL was developed by Netscape PART II
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Security in the Infrastructure
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Physical Security Infrastructure Security Remote Access and Authentication Infrastructure
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Physical Security
Describe how physical security directly affects computer and network security Discuss steps that can be taken to help mitigate risks Understand electronic access controls and the principles of convergence
For most American homes, locks are the primary means of achieving physical security, and almost every American locks the doors to his or her home upon leaving the residence Some go even further and set up intrusion alarm systems in addition to locks All these precautions are considered necessary because people believe they have something significant inside the house that needs to be protected, such as important possessions and important people Physical security is an important topic for businesses dealing with the security of information systems Businesses are responsible for securing their profitability, which requires a combination of several aspects: They need to secure employees, product inventory, trade secrets, and strategy information These and other important assets affect the profitability of a company and its future survival Companies therefore perform many activities to attempt to provide physical security locking doors, installing alarm systems, using safes, posting security guards, setting access controls, and more Most companies today have committed a large amount of effort into network security and information systems security In this chapter, you will learn about how these two security efforts are linked, and you ll learn several methods by which companies can minimize their exposure to physical security events that can diminish their network security
The Security Problem
The problem that faces professionals charged with securing a company s network can be stated rather simply: Physical access negates all other security measures No matter how impenetrable the firewall and intrusion detection system (IDS), if an attacker can find a way to walk up to and touch a server, he can break into it The more remarkable thing is that gaining physical access to a number of machines is not that difficult
CompTIA Security+ All-in-One Exam Guide
Consider that most network security measures are, from necessity, directed at protecting a company from the Internet This fact results in a lot of companies allowing any kind of traffic on the local area network (LAN) So if an attacker attempts to gain access to a server over the Internet and fails, he may be able to gain physical access to the receptionist s machine, and by quickly compromising it, he can use it as a remotely controlled zombie to attack what he is really after Physically securing information assets doesn t mean just the servers; it means protecting the physical access to all the organization s computers and its entire network infrastructure Physical access to a corporation s systems can allow an attacker to perform a number of interesting activities, starting with simply plugging into an open Ethernet jack The advent of handheld devices with the ability to run operating systems with full networking support has made this attack scenario even more feasible Prior to handheld devices, the attacker would have to work in a secluded area with dedicated access to the Ethernet for a time The attacker would sit down with a laptop and run a variety of tools against the network, and working internally typically put the attacker behind the firewall and IDS Today s capable PDAs can assist these efforts by allowing attackers to place the small device onto the network to act as a wireless bridge The attacker can then use a laptop to attack a network remotely via the bridge from outside the building If power is available near the Ethernet jack, this type of attack can also be accomplished with an off-the-shelf access point The attacker s only challenge is finding an Ethernet jack that isn t covered by furniture or some other obstruction Another simple attack that can be used when an attacker has physical access is called a bootdisk Before bootable CD-ROMs or DVD-ROMs were available, a boot floppy was used to start the system and prepare the hard drives to load the operating system Since many machines still have floppy drives, boot floppies can still be used These floppies can contain a number of programs, but the most typical ones would be NTFSDOS or a floppy-based Linux distribution that can be used to perform a number of tasks, including mounting the hard drives and performing at least read operations Once an attacker is able to read a hard drive, the password file can be copied off the machine for offline password cracking attacks If write access to the drive is obtained, the attacker could alter the password file or place a remote control program to be executed automatically upon the next boot, guaranteeing continued access to the machine Bootable CD-ROMs and DVD-ROMs are a danger for the same reason perhaps even more so, because they can carry a variety of payloads such as malware or even entire operating systems An operating system designed to run the entire machine from an optical disc without using the hard drive is commonly referred to as a LiveCD LiveCDs contain a bootable version of an entire operating system, typically a variant of Linux, complete with drivers for most devices LiveCDs give an attacker a greater array of tools than could be loaded onto a floppy disk For example, an attacker would likely have access to the hard disk and also to an operational network interface that would allow him to send the drive data over the Internet if properly connected These bootable operating systems could also be custom built to contain any tool that runs under
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