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16: Throwing and Catching Exceptions
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public void Run( ) { try { Console.WriteLine("Open file here"); double a = 0; double b = 5; Console.WriteLine("{0} / {1} = {2}", a, b, DoDivide(a, b)); Console.WriteLine("This line may or may not print"); } // most derived exception type first catch (System.DivideByZeroException e) { Console.WriteLine("\nDivideByZeroException! Msg: {0}", e.Message); Console.WriteLine("\nHelpLink: {0}\n", e.HelpLink); } // catch custom exception catch (MyCustomException e) { Console.WriteLine("\nMyCustomException! Msg: {0}", e.Message); Console.WriteLine("\nHelpLink: {0}\n", e.HelpLink); } catch // catch any uncaught exceptions { Console.WriteLine("Unknown exception caught"); } finally { Console.WriteLine("Close file here."); } } // do the division if legal public double DoDivide(double a, double b) { if (b == 0) { DivideByZeroException e = new DivideByZeroException( ); e.HelpLink = "http://www.libertyassociates.com"; throw e; } if (a == 0) { // create a custom exception instance MyCustomException e = new MyCustomException("Can't have zero dividend");
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e.HelpLink = "http://www.libertyassociates.com/NoZeroDividend.htm"; throw e; } return a / b; } static void Main( ) { Console.WriteLine("Enter Main..."); Tester t = new Tester( ); t.Run( ); Console.WriteLine("Exit Main..."); } } }
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The output looks like this:
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Enter Main... Open file here MyCustomException! Msg: Can't have zero dividend HelpLink: http://www.libertyassociates.com/NoZeroDividend.htm Close file here. Exit Main...
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MyCustomException is derived from System.Exception and consists of nothing more than a constructor that takes a string message that it passes to its base class. There s no code inside the constructor at all.
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The advantage of creating this custom exception class is that it better reflects the particular design of the Tester class. That is, you ve decided that, for whatever reason, it s not legal to have a zero dividend in this class. Using the ArithmeticException rather than a custom exception would work as well, but it might confuse other programmers because a zero dividend wouldn t normally be considered an arithmetic error. Using a custom exception indicates that the exception was raised because of a violation of rules that are particular to your class. You are free, of course, to add methods and properties to your custom exception classes as needed.
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16: Throwing and Catching Exceptions
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Summary
Throwing (or raising) an exception halts execution of your program at that point, and execution proceeds in the most immediately available catch block (exception handler). A bug is a programming mistake that should be fixed before the program is released. An exception, however, is the result of a predictable but unpreventable problem that arises during runtime (for example, running out of disk space). When a program encounters a problem that it cannot solve or work around, it may throw an exception to halt execution and allow the exception handler to fix or work around the problem. All exceptions used in C# derive from System.Exception, and all exceptions in your program should derive from System.Exception. You can throw an exception yourself using the throw keyword. It is good programming practice to enclose code that has a high risk of throwing an exception within a try block and to provide an exception handler (a catch block) and perhaps a finally block. The catch block follows the try block and contains the code used to handle the exception. If an exception was not raised within a try block, or there is no catch block, the stack is unwound until a catch block is found. If no catch block is ever found, the built-in exception handler is invoked, which terminates your program with an error message. You can create dedicated catch statements to catch specific types of exceptions taking advantage of the inheritance hierarchy of exceptions. Any action that must be taken whether or not an exception is raised (such as closing a file) should be enclosed in a finally block. An exception object can contain information about the circumstances that cause the exception to be raised. Typically, exception objects contain at least a text message explaining the exception, in the Message property. You can define your own exception class, derived from System.Exception, if you need to provide more specific information about your exception. With this chapter, you ve taken a step toward the real world of development you ve discarded the idea that the world is populated by perfect users who never enter bad data, and perfect systems that never drop your connection when you need it. Although no code is ever bulletproof, yours is no longer made of tinfoil. Now that you can let your programs out of their isolated corner of your system, it s time to let
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