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result = ++original; // prefix result = original++; // postfix
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Increment and Decrement Operators
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It is important to understand the different effects of prefix and postfix, as illustrated in Example 4-3. Note the output.
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using using using using System; System.Collections.Generic; System.Linq; System.Text;
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namespace Example_4_3_ _ _ _Prefix_and_Postfix { class Program { static void Main( ) { int original = 10; int result; // increment then assign result = ++original; Console.WriteLine("After prefix: {0}, {1}", original, result); // assign then increment result = original++; Console.WriteLine("After postfix: {0}, {1}", original, result); } } }
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The output looks like this:
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After prefix: 11, 11 After postfix: 12, 11
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Look at the prefix increment from Example 4-3 again:
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result = ++original;
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The semantics of the prefix increment operator are increment the value of original and then assign the incremented value to result. So, original starts with a value of 10, you increment that to 11, and assign it to result. In the end, both variables have the value of 11. Now look at the postfix increment:
result = original++;
The semantics here are assign the value of original to result, and then increment original. The value of original is 11 at this point, which gets assigned to result, and then original is incremented. The prefix and postfix operators work the same way with the decrement operators, for the same reasons, as shown in Example 4-4. Again, note the output.
| 4: Operators
using using using using System; System.Collections.Generic; System.Linq; System.Text;
namespace Example_4_4_ _ _ _Decrement_Operators { using System; class Program { static void Main( ) { int original = 10; int result; // increment then assign result = --original; Console.WriteLine("After prefix: {0}, {1}", original, result); // assign then increment result = original--; Console.WriteLine("After postfix: {0}, {1}", original, result); } } }
The output looks like this:
After prefix: 9, 9 After postfix: 8, 9
The increment operators are meant to be a convenient shortcut to save you keystrokes, and as you go through this book, you ll see them used in various common ways, such as controlling loops. Remember, though, that one of the goals of good programming is readability. If you overuse the prefix and postfix operators in an attempt to be efficient with your typing, but six months from now you re trying to puzzle out what your code does and how, you haven t really saved any time. If you think that using these operators will make your code confusing, go ahead and write out the expression the long way. You may thank yourself later.
Relational Operators
Relational operators compare two values and then return a Boolean value (true or false, as described in 3). The greater than operator (>), for example, returns true if the value on the left of the operator is greater than the value on the right. Thus, 5>2 returns the value true, whereas 2>5 returns the value false.
Relational Operators |
The relational operators for C# are shown in Table 4-1. This table assumes two variables: bigValue and smallValue, in which bigValue has been assigned the value 100, and smallValue the value 50.
Table 4-1. C# relational operators (assumes bigValue = 100 and smallValue = 50) Name Equals Not equals Greater than Greater than or equal to Operator
== != > >=
Given this statement
bigValue == 100 bigValue == 80 bigValue != 100 bigValue != 80 bigValue > smallValue bigValue >= smallValue smallValue >= bigValue bigValue < smallValue smallValue <= bigValue bigValue <= smallValue
The expression evaluates to
True False False True True True False False True False
Less than Less than or equal to
< <=
Each of these relational operators acts as you might expect. Notice that most of these operators are composed of two characters. For example, the greater than or equal to operator (>=) is made up of the greater-than symbol (>) and the equals sign (=). The symbols must appear in that order for the operator to be valid; =< isn t a valid operator, and => is a different operator altogether, but one you won t see until much later in the book. Notice also that the equals operator is made up of two equals signs (==) because the single equals sign alone (=) is reserved for the assignment operator.
A very common beginner mistake is to confuse the assignment operator (=) with the equals operator (==). Even experienced programmers do this from time to time. Just remember that the latter has two equals signs, and the former only one.
The C# equals operator (==) tests for equality between the objects on either side of the operator. This operator evaluates to a Boolean value (true or false). Thus, the statement:
myX == 5;
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