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cond-expr expression1 : expression2
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This operator evaluates a conditional expression (an expression that returns a value of type bool) and then invokes either expression1 if the value returned from the conditional expression is true, or expression2 if the value returned is false. The logic is: if this is true, do the first; otherwise, do the second. Example 4-5 illustrates this concept.
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| 4: Operators
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using using using using System; System.Collections.Generic; System.Linq; System.Text;
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namespace Example_4_5_ _ _ _Ternary_Operator { class ValuesProgram { static void Main( ) { int valueOne = 10; int valueTwo = 20; int maxValue = valueOne > valueTwo valueOne : valueTwo; Console.WriteLine("ValueOne: {0}, valueTwo: {1}, maxValue: {2}", valueOne, valueTwo, maxValue); } } }
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The output looks like this:
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ValueOne: 10, valueTwo: 20, maxValue: 20
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In Example 4-5, the ternary operator is being used to test whether valueOne is greater than valueTwo. If so, the value of valueOne is assigned to the integer variable maxValue; otherwise, the value of valueTwo is assigned to maxValue. As with the increment operator, although the conditional operator can save you some keystrokes, you can achieve the same effect with an if statement, which we ll discuss in 5. If you think there may be some confusion as a result of using the conditional operator, you re probably better off writing it out.
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Operator Precedence
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The compiler must know the order in which to evaluate a series of operators. For example, if you write:
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myVariable = 5 + 7 * 3;
there are three operators for the compiler to evaluate (=, +, and *). It could, for example, operate left to right, which would assign the value 5 to myVariable, then add 7 to the 5 (12) and multiply by 3 (36) but of course, then it would throw that 36 away. This is clearly not what is intended.
Operator Precedence
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The rules of precedence tell the compiler which operators to evaluate first. As is the case in algebra, multiplication has higher precedence than addition, so 5+7 3 is equal to 26 rather than 36. Both multiplication and addition have higher precedence than assignment, so the compiler will do the math and then assign the result (26) to myVariable only after the math is completed. In C#, you can also use parentheses to change the order of precedence much as you would in algebra. Thus, you can change the result by writing:
myVariable = (5+7) * 3;
Grouping the elements of the assignment in this way causes the compiler to add 5+7, multiply the result by 3, and then assign that value (36) to myVariable. Table 4-3 summarizes operator precedence in C#, using x and y as possible terms to be operated upon.*
Table 4-3. Operator precedence Category Primary Unary Multiplicative Additive Shift Relational Equality Logical (bitwise) AND Logical (bitwise) XOR Logical (bitwise) OR Conditional AND Conditional OR Conditional Assignment Operators
(x) x.y x->y f(x) a[x] x++ x new typeof sizeof checked unchecked stackalloc + - ! ~ ++x x (T)x *x &x * / % + << >> < > <= >= is as == != & ^ | && || : = *= /= %= += -= <<= >>= &= ^= |=
The operators are listed in precedence order according to the category in which they fit. That is, the primary operators (such as x++) are evaluated before the unary operators (such as !). Multiplication is evaluated before addition. There are a lot of operators in this table, and you don t need to memorize their order of precedence. It never hurts to use parentheses if you re not sure of the exact order.
* This table includes operators that are beyond the scope of this book. For a fuller explanation of each, please see Programming C#, Fifth Edition, by Jesse Liberty and Donald Xie (O Reilly).
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