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5: Branching
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That completes our tour of the fundamentals of programming, and now you re ready to take the next step. Everything you ve done so far is what s called procedural programming, but in 6, that s going to change. There s nothing wrong with procedural programming; in fact, most modern languages have their roots in procedural programming, and you ll probably find that you now can understand the fundamentals of other languages with procedural roots, such as Visual Basic and JavaScript. The basic data types you have to work with right now, though, form a somewhat short list you can do plenty of math, determine true or false, and work with text in the form of strings. That s a good start, but what if you want to model a somewhat more complex object with your code a dog, for example, or an employee, or a book You need a data type that s much more advanced, one that you define yourself. That s object-oriented programming, and that s the subject of the next chapter.
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Question 5-1. What statements are generally used for conditional branching Question 5-2. True or false: an if statement s condition must evaluate to an expression. Question 5-3. Why should you use braces when there is only one statement following the if Question 5-4. What kind of expression can be placed in a switch statement Question 5-5. True or false: you can never fall through in a switch statement. Question 5-6. Name two uses of goto. Question 5-7. What is the difference between while and do...while Question 5-8. What are the three parts of a for loop header Question 5-9. What does the keyword continue do Question 5-10. What are two ways to create a loop that never ends until you hit a break statement
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Exercise 5-1. Create a program that counts from 1 to 10 three times, using the while, do...while, and for statements, and outputs the results to the screen. Exercise 5-2. Create a program that prompts a user for input, accepts an integer, then evaluates whether that input is zero, odd or even, a multiple of 10, or too large (more than 100) by using multiple levels of if statements. Exercise 5-3. Rewrite the program from Exercise 5-2 to do the same work with a switch statement. Exercise 5-4. Create a program that initializes a variable i at 0 and counts up, and initializes a second variable j at 25 and counts down. Use a single for loop to increment i and decrement j simultaneously, and output the values of i and j at each iteration of the loop. When i is greater than j, end the loop and print out the message Crossed over!
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Object-Oriented Programming
Windows and web programs are enormously complex programs that present information to users in graphically rich ways, offering complicated user interfaces, complete with drop-down and pop-up menus, buttons, listboxes, and so forth. Behind these interfaces, programs model complex business relationships, such as those among customers, products, orders, and inventory. Users can interact with such a program in hundreds, if not thousands, of different ways, and the program must respond appropriately every time. To manage this complexity, programmers have developed a technique called objectoriented programming. It is based on a very simple premise: you manage complexity by modeling its essential aspects. The closer your program models the problem you are trying to solve, the easier it is to understand (and thus to write and to maintain) that program. Programmers refer to the problem you are trying to solve and all the information you know that relates to your problem as the problem domain. For example, if you are writing a program to manage the inventory and sales of a company, the problem domain would include everything you know about how the company acquires and manages inventory, makes sales, handles the income from sales, tracks sales figures, and so forth. The sales manager and the stock room manager would be problemdomain experts who can help you understand the situation better. A well-designed object-oriented program is filled with objects (things) from the problem domain. For example, if the problem domain is an ATM for banking, the things (objects) in your domain might include customers, accounts, monthly statements, and so forth. At the first level of design, you ll think about how these objects interact and what their state, capabilities, and responsibilities are: State A programmer refers to the current conditions and values of an object as that object s state. For example, you might have an object representing a customer.
The customer s state includes the customer s address, phone number, and email, as well as the customer s credit rating, recent purchase history, and so forth. A different customer would have different state. Capabilities The customer has many capabilities, but a developer cares about modeling only those that are relevant to the problem domain. Thus, a customer object might be able to make a deposit, transfer funds, withdraw cash, and so forth. Responsibilities Along with capabilities come responsibilities. The customer object is responsible for managing its own address. In a well-designed program, no other object needs to know the details of the customer s address. The address might be stored as data within the customer object, or it might be stored in a database, but it is up to the customer object to know how to retrieve and update her own address. (The monthly-statement object should not know the customer s address, though it might ask the customer object for the customer address. This way, when the customer moves, the responsibility for knowing the new address is located in a single object: the customer.) This ability for an object to own responsibility for its own internal state and actions is known as encapsulation. Of course, all of the objects in your program are just metaphors for the objects in your problem domain.
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