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The second pillar of object-oriented programming, specialization, is implemented in C# through inheritance; specifically, by declaring that a new class derives from an existing class. The specialized class inherits the characteristics of the more general class. The specialized class is called a derived class, and the more general class is known as a base class. The specialization relationship is referred to as the is-a relationship. A dog is a mammal; a car is a vehicle. (Dog would be derived from the base class Mammal and Car from the base class Vehicle.) For example, a Manager is a special type of Employee. The Manager adds new capabilities (hiring, firing, rewarding, praising) and a new state (annual objectives, management level, and so on). The Manager, however, also inherits the characteristics and
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The Three Pillars of Object-Oriented Programming |
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capabilities common to all Employees. Thus, a Manager has an address, a name, and an employee ID, and Managers can be given raises, can be laid off, and so forth. Specialization allows you to create a family of objects. In Windows, a button is a control. A listbox is a control. Controls have certain characteristics (color, size, location) and certain abilities (can be drawn, can be selected). These characteristics and abilities are inherited by all of their derived types, which allows for a very powerful form of reuse. Rather than cutting and pasting code from one type to another, the derived type inherits the shared fields and methods. If you change how a shared ability is implemented in the base class, you do not have to update code in every derived type; they inherit the changes. You ll see specialization at work in 11.
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Polymorphism, the third pillar of object-oriented programming, is closely related to inheritance. The prefix poly means many ; morph means form. Thus, polymorphism refers to the ability of a single type or class to take many forms.
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About the Examples in This Book
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Object-oriented programming is designed to help you manage complex programs. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to show complex problems and their solutions in a primer on C#. The complexity of these problems gets in the way of what you re trying to learn about. Because of necessity, the examples in this book will be simple. The simplicity may hide some of the motivation for the technique, but it makes the technique clearer. You ll have to take it on faith, for now, that these techniques scale up well to very complex problems. Most of the chapters of this book focus on the syntax of C#. You need the syntax of the language to be able to write a program at all, but it s important to keep in mind that the syntax of any language is less important than its semantics. The meaning of what you are writing and why you re writing it is the real focus of object-oriented programming, and thus of this book. Don t let concern with syntax get in the way of understanding the semantics. The compiler can help you get the syntax right (if only by complaining when you get it wrong), and the documentation can remind you of the syntax, but understanding the semantics the meaning of the construct is the hard part. Throughout this book, we work hard to explain not only how you do something, but also why and when you do it.
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6: Object-Oriented Programming
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Sometimes you will know you have a collection of a general type for example, a collection of controls but you do not know (or care) about the specific subtype of each control (one may be a button, another a listbox). The important thing is that you know they all inherit shared abilities (such as the Draw method) and that you can treat them all as controls. If you write a programming instruction that tells each control to draw itself, the Draw( ) method is implemented properly on a per-control basis (buttons draw as buttons, listboxes draw as listboxes). You do not need to know how each subtype accomplishes this; you only need to know that each type is defined to be able to draw. Polymorphism allows you to treat a collection of disparate derived types (buttons, listboxes) as a group. You treat the general group of controls the same way, and each individual control does the right thing according to its specific type. 11 provides details and examples.
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