make barcode with vb.net 7: Classes and Objects in Visual C#.NET

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7: Classes and Objects
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class Tester { public void Run( ) { // create an integer int firstInt = 5; // create a second integer int secondInt = firstInt; // display the two integers Console.WriteLine( "firstInt: {0} secondInt: {1}", firstInt, secondInt ); // modify the second integer secondInt = 7; // display the two integers Console.WriteLine( "firstInt: {0} secondInt: {1}", firstInt, secondInt ); // create a dog Dog milo = new Dog( ); // assign a value to weight milo.weight = 5; // create a second reference to the dog Dog fido = milo; // display their values Console.WriteLine( "milo: {0}, fido: {1}", milo.weight, fido.weight ); // assign a new weight to the second reference fido.weight = 7; // display the two values Console.WriteLine( "milo: {0}, fido: {1}", milo.weight, fido.weight ); } static void Main( ) { Tester t = new Tester( ); t.Run( ); } } }
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The output looks like this:
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firstInt: 5 secondInt: 5 firstInt: 5 secondInt: 7 Milo: 5, fido: 5 Milo: 7, fido: 7
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The program begins by creating an integer, firstInt, and initializing it with the value 5. The second integer, secondInt, is then created and initialized with the value in firstInt. Their values are displayed as output:
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firstInt: 5 secondInt: 5
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These values are identical. Because int is a value type, a copy of the firstInt value is made and assigned to secondInt; secondInt is an independent second variable, as illustrated in Figure 7-2.
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firstInt 5 Figure 7-2. secondInt is a copy of firstInt.
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secondInt 5
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Then the program assigns a new value to secondInt:
secondInt = 7;
Because these variables are value types, independent of one another, the first variable is unaffected. Only the copy is changed, as illustrated in Figure 7-3.
firstInt 5 Figure 7-3. Only the copy is changed.
secondInt 7
When the values are displayed, they are different:
firstInt: 5 secondInt: 7
Your next step is to create a simple Dog class with only one member variable, called weight. Note that this field is given an access modifier of public, which specifies that any method of any class can access this field. (Generally, you will not make member variables public. The weight field was made public to simplify this example.) You instantiate a Dog object and save a reference to that dog in the reference milo:
Dog milo = new Dog( );
You assign the value 5 to milo s weight field:
milo.weight = 5;
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7: Classes and Objects
You commonly say that you ve set milo s weight to 5, but actually you ve set the weight field of the unnamed object on the heap to which milo refers, as shown in Figure 7-4.
5 LBS
Heap milo
Next, you create a second reference to Dog and initialize it by setting it equal to milo. This creates a new reference to the same object on the heap.
Dog fido = milo;
Notice that this is syntactically similar to creating a second int variable and initializing it with an existing int, as you did before:
int secondInt = firstInt; Dog fido = milo;
The difference is that Dog is a reference type, so fido is not a copy of milo it is a second reference to the same object to which milo refers. That is, you now have an object on the heap with two references to it, as illustrated in Figure 7-5. When you change the weight of that object through the fido reference:
fido.weight = 7;
you change the weight of the same object to which milo refers. The output reflects this:
Milo: 7, fido: 7
It isn t that fido is changing milo; it is that by changing the (unnamed) object on the heap to which fido refers you simultaneously change the value of milo because they refer to the same unnamed object.
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