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If you had used the keyword new when creating fido, you d have created a new instance of Dog on the heap, and fido and milo would not point to the same Dog object.
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Structs are value types, but they are similar to classes in that they can contain constructors, properties, methods, and fields, all explained in this chapter. Structs can also support operators and indexers (see 14). On the other hand, structs don t support inheritance or destructors (see 11) or field initialization. You define a struct almost exactly like you define a class:
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[attributes] [access-modifiers] struct identifier [:interface-list] { struct-members }
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Structs implicitly derive from Object (as do all types in C#, including the built-in types) but cannot inherit from any other class or struct (as classes can). Structs are also implicitly sealed (that is, no class or struct can derive from a struct; see 11); this is not true for classes. The goal of structs is to be lightweight requiring little memory overhead but their use is so constrained, and the savings are so minimal, that most programmers make little use of them. C++ programmers beware: structs in C++ are identical to classes (except for visibility) that is not true in C#.
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7: Classes and Objects
If you need a class that acts as a value object, you can create a struct (see the Structs sidebar). The use of structs is so unusual that we do not cover them (beyond the sidebar) for the rest of this book. You should know what they are, but you ll probably never need to use one.
Summary
When you define a new class, you declare its name with the class keyword, and then define its methods, fields, and properties. To instantiate an object, you declare the name of the class, followed by an identifier for the object, much as you would a local variable. You then need to allocate memory for the actual (unnamed) object that will be created on the heap; you do so with the keyword new. You invoke a method on an object by writing the name of the object, followed by the dot operator, and the method name followed by parentheses. Parameters, if any, are placed within the parentheses. Access modifiers dictate which methods of external classes can see and use a variable or method within a class. All members of the class are visible to all methods of its own class. Members marked public have no restrictions, and are visible to methods of any class. Members marked private are visible only to methods within the same class. Members marked protected are visible to methods within the same class, and methods in derived classes. If you know the return type of a method, you can use a method call anyplace you would use an instance of that type. A constructor is a special method invoked when a new object is created. If you do not define any constructors at all for your class, the compiler will provide a default constructor that does nothing. A default constructor is a constructor that takes no parameters. You are free to create your own default constructor for your class. You can initialize the values of your member variables when you define them in your class. Object initializers allow you to set the public fields of an object immediately after you create the object. Anonymous types allow you to create a class with no name, and initialize its fields immediately. The compiler will implicitly assign types to those fields. You can use the var keyword to create an instance of the anonymous object. The this keyword is used to refer to the current instance of an object.
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