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8: Inside Methods
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public class Box { // private variables private int length; private int width; private int height; private string color; // public methods public void DisplayBox( ) { Console.WriteLine("Length: {0}, Width: {1}, Height: {2} Color: {3}", length, width, height, color); } // constructor public Box(int theLength, int theWidth, int theHeight) { length = theLength; width = theWidth; height = theHeight; color = "brown"; } public Box(int theLength, int theWidth, int theHeight, string theColor) { length = theLength; width = theWidth; height = theHeight; color = theColor; } } public class Tester { static void Main( ) { Box box1 = new Box(4, 8, 3); box1.DisplayBox( ); Box blueBox = new Box(3, 5, 7, "blue"); blueBox.DisplayBox( ); } } }
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The output looks like this:
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Length: 4, Width: 8, Height: 3 Color: brown Length: 3, Width: 5, Height: 7 Color: blue
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Overloading Methods |
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If a function s signature consisted only of the function name, the compiler would not know which constructors to call when constructing the new Box objects, box1 and blueBox. However, because the signature includes the parameters and their types, the compiler is able to match the constructor call for blueBox with the constructor whose signature requires a string object:
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Box blueBox = new Box(3, 5, 7, "blue"); public Box(int theLength, int theWidth, int theHeight, string theColor)
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Likewise, the compiler is able to associate the box1 constructor call with the constructor whose signature specifies just three integer arguments:
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Box box1 = new Box(4, 8, 3); public Box(int theLength, int theWidth, int theHeight)
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Notice that the constructor that doesn t take a color automatically assigns a color of brown to all boxes created with that constructor. We changed the DisplayBox( ) method to output the color of the box, so you see that box1 is brown in the output.
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When you overload a method, you must change the signature (the name, number, or type of the parameters). You are free, as well, to change the return type, but this is optional. Changing only the return type does not overload the method, and creating two methods with the same signature but differing return types generates a compile error.
Encapsulating Data with Properties
Most of the time, you ll want to designate the member variables of a class as private. This means that only member methods of that class can access their value. When you prevent methods outside the class from directly accessing member variables, you re enforcing data hiding, which is an aspect of the encapsulation of a class, as we discussed in 6. That s fine, but if the members are private, how do your other classes access that data The answer for C# programmers is properties. Properties allow other methods (called clients) to access the state of your class as though they were accessing member fields directly, although you re actually implementing that access through a class method. This solution is ideal. The client wants direct access to the state of the object. As the class designer, though, you want to hide the internal state of the class in class fields and provide indirect access through a method. For example, you might want external classes to be able to read a value, but not change it; or you might want to write some code so that the internal field can accept only values in a certain range. If you grant external classes free access to your member fields, you can t control any of that.
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8: Inside Methods
The property provides both the illusion of direct access for the client and the reality of indirect access for the class developer. By separating the class state from the method that accesses that state (a process called decoupling), you re free to change the internal state of the object whenever you need to. When the Box class is first created, the length value might be stored as a member variable. Later on, you might redesign the class so that the length value is computed or maybe retrieved from a database. If the client had direct access to the original length member variable, changing how that value is resolved would break the client. By decoupling and forcing the client to go through a property, the Box class can change how it manages its internal state without breaking client code. In short, properties provide the data hiding required by good object-oriented design. Example 8-2 creates a property called length, which is then discussed in the paragraphs that follow.
using using using using System; System.Collections.Generic; System.Linq; System.Text;
namespace Example_8_2_ _ _ _Properties { public class Box { // private variables private int length; private int width; private int height; // property public int Length { get { return length; } set { length = value; } } // public methods public void DisplayBox( ) { Console.WriteLine("Length: {0}, Width: {1}, Height: {2}", length, width, height); }
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