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Using Arrays |
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Value in index 8 is 18. Value in index 9 is 20.
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Go ahead and change the < in the first loop to <=, and run the program again. You ll get yourself a nice crash. That s because when the loop runs the final time (when i equals 10), the body of the loop tries to assign a value to myIntArray[10], which doesn t exist. You re trying to write into an area of memory that s not there, and the compiler doesn t like that. You can use arrays with user-defined classes as well, of course, but you have to do a bit of extra work because the objects won t be initialized automatically. Example 10-2 shows a simple Employee class being used with an array. Notice that the class includes an automatic property for the Employee ID, as introduced in 8.
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using using using using System; System.Collections.Generic; System.Linq; System.Text;
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namespace Example_10_2_ _ _ _Arrays_and_Objects { // a simple class to store in the array public class Employee { public int EmpID { get; set; } public Employee(int empID) { EmpID = empID; } } public class Tester { static void Main( ) { Employee[] empArray; empArray = new Employee[3]; // populate the arrays for (int i = 0; i < empArray.Length; i++) { empArray[i] = new Employee(i + 1005); } // output array values Console.WriteLine("\nemployee IDs:"); for (int i = 0; i < empArray.Length; i++) {
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10: Arrays
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Console.WriteLine(empArray[i].EmpID); } } } }
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The output looks like this:
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employee IDs: 1005 1006 1007
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In this example, the Employee IDs start at 1005 and proceed from there. You see that you need to create each Employee object with the new keyword in the for loop. To access the EmpID member of each Employee object, you use the dot notation: empArray[i].EmpID. Notice that the dot comes after the square brackets. Remember that empArray represents the entire array, but empArray[i] represents a single Employee, so you can access the member fields and methods of each individual object.
The foreach Statement
The foreach statement allows you to iterate through all the items in an array or other collection, examining each item in turn. The syntax for the foreach statement is:
foreach (type identifier in expression) statement
You can update Example 10-1 to replace the second for statement (the one that iterates over the contents of the populated array) with a foreach statement, as shown in Example 10-3.
foreach (int i in myIntArray) { Console.WriteLine("The value is {0}.", i); }
The output will be nearly the same. Note that in this case, though, i doesn t represent the index of the array element; it represents the array element itself. In Example 10-1, we used i to output the index as well as the value. Here, that s not an option. If you specifically want to output the index as well as the value, you re better off using the for loop.
The foreach Statement |
Initializing Array Elements
You can initialize the contents of an array at the time you create it by providing a list of values delimited by curly braces ({}). C# provides a longer and a shorter syntax:
int[] myIntArray = new int[5] { 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 }; int[] myIntArray = { 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 };
In the shorter syntax, C# automatically creates an array of the proper size for the number of elements in the braces. There is no practical difference between these two statements, and most programmers will use the shorter syntax.
The params Keyword
One of the more unusual uses of arrays is the params keyword. If you have a method that accepts an array, the params keyword allows you to pass that method a variable number of parameters, instead of explicitly declaring the array. Of course, the parameters must all be of the same type. Because of the params keyword, the method will receive an array of that type. In the next example, you create a method, DisplayVals( ), that takes a variable number of integer arguments:
public void DisplayVals(params int[] intVals)
Inside the method, you can iterate over the array as you would over any other array of integers:
foreach (int i in intVals) { Console.WriteLine("DisplayVals {0}",i); }
The calling method, however, need not explicitly create an array: it can simply pass in integers, and the compiler will assemble the parameters into an array for the DisplayVals( ) method:
t.DisplayVals(5,6,7,8);
You are also free to pass in an array if you prefer:
int [] explicitArray = new int[5] {1,2,3,4,5}; t.DisplayVals(explicitArray);
You can use only one params argument for each method you create, and the params argument must be the last argument in the method s signature.
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