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10: Arrays
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using using using using System; System.Collections.Generic; System.Linq; System.Text;
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namespace Example_10_7_ _ _ _Jagged_arrays { class Program { public class Tester { static void Main( ) { const int rows = 4; // declare the jagged array as 4 rows high int[][] jaggedArray = new int[rows][]; // the first row has 5 elements jaggedArray[0] = new int[5]; // a row with 2 elements jaggedArray[1] = new int[2]; // a row with 3 elements jaggedArray[2] = new int[3]; // the last row has 5 elements jaggedArray[3] = new int[5]; // Fill some (but jaggedArray[0][3] jaggedArray[1][1] jaggedArray[2][1] jaggedArray[2][2] jaggedArray[3][0] jaggedArray[3][1] jaggedArray[3][2] jaggedArray[3][3] jaggedArray[3][4] not all) elements of the rows = 15; = 12; = 9; = 99; = 10; = 11; = 12; = 13; = 14;
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for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) { Console.WriteLine("jaggedArray[0][{0}] = {1}", i, jaggedArray[0][i]); } for (int i = 0; i < 2; i++) { Console.WriteLine("jaggedArray[1][{0}] = {1}", i, jaggedArray[1][i]);
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Multidimensional Arrays |
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} for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) { Console.WriteLine("jaggedArray[2][{0}] = {1}", i, jaggedArray[2][i]); } for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) { Console.WriteLine("jaggedArray[3][{0}] = {1}", i, jaggedArray[3][i]); } } } } }
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The output looks like this:
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jaggedArray[0][0] jaggedArray[0][1] jaggedArray[0][2] jaggedArray[0][3] jaggedArray[0][4] jaggedArray[1][0] jaggedArray[1][1] jaggedArray[2][0] jaggedArray[2][1] jaggedArray[2][2] jaggedArray[3][0] jaggedArray[3][1] jaggedArray[3][2] jaggedArray[3][3] jaggedArray[3][4] = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 0 0 0 15 0 0 12 0 9 99 10 11 12 13 14
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In this example, a jagged array is created with four rows:
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int[][] jaggedArray = new int[rows][];
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Notice that the second dimension is not specified. This value is set by creating a new array for each row. Each of these arrays can have a different size:
// the first row has 5 elements jaggedArray[0] = new int[5]; // a row with 2 elements jaggedArray[1] = new int[2]; // a row with 3 elements jaggedArray[2] = new int[3]; // the last row has 5 elements jaggedArray[3] = new int[5];
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10: Arrays
Once an array is specified for each row, you only need to populate the various members of each array and then print out their contents to ensure that all went as expected. Another way of outputting the values would be to use two nested for loops, and use the Length property of the array to control the loop:
for (int i = 0; i < jaggedArray.Length; i++ ) { for (int j = 0; j < jaggedArray[i].Length; j++) { Console.WriteLine("jaggedArray[{0}][{1}] = {2}", i, j, jaggedArray[i][j]); } }
In this case, the outer for loop iterates over the rows in the array. The inner loop outputs each column in the given row. Because you re using Length to control how many times the loop runs, it doesn t matter that each row is a different length. If you didn t use Length, and simply tried to use the maximum dimensions, you d get an error the first time the program tried to access a null element in a short row. Notice that when you access the members of the rectangular array, you put the indexes all within one set of square brackets:
rectangularArrayrectangularArray[i,j]
whereas with a jagged array, you need a pair of brackets:
jaggedArray[i][j]
You can keep this straight by thinking of the first as a single array of more than one dimension and the jagged array as an array of arrays.
Array Methods
Although you ve been using arrays as built-in types throughout this chapter, an array is actually an object of type System.Array. Arrays in C# thus provide you with the best of both worlds: easy-to-use syntax underpinned with an actual class definition so that instances of an array have access to the methods and properties of System.Array. You ve seen the Length property of arrays used several times already. Some of the other important methods and properties appear in Table 10-1.
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