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Using the operator Keyword
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In C#, operators are static methods. The return value of an operator represents the result of an operation. The operator s parameters are the operands. You can define an addition operator for a Fraction class as you would any other class method, but with a bit of a difference. Instead of a method name, you use the C# syntax of combining the operator keyword with the plus sign (+) operator, combined with the keyword static. For example, the overloaded addition operator (the operator+ method) takes two Fraction objects (the fractions you want to add) as parameters and returns a reference to another Fraction object representing the sum of the two parameters. Here is its signature:
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public static Fraction operator+(Fraction lhs, Fraction rhs)
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And here s what you can do with it. Assume, for instance, that you ve defined two fractions representing the portion of a pie you ve eaten for breakfast and lunch, respectively. (You love pie.)
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Fraction pieIAteForBreakfast = new Fraction(1,2); // 1/2 of a pie Fraction pieIAteForLunch = new Fraction(1,3); // 1/3 of a pie
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The overloaded operator+ allows you to figure out how much pie you ve eaten in total. (And there s still 1/6 of the pie leftover for dinner!) You would write:
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Fraction totalPigOut = pieIAteForBreakfast + pieIAteForLunch;
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The compiler takes the first operand (pieIAteForBreakfast) and passes it to operator+ as the parameter lhs; it passes the second operand (pieIAteForLunch) as
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12: Operator Overloading
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rhs. These two Fractions are then added, and the result is returned and assigned to the Fraction object named totalPigOut.
It is our convention to name the parameters to a binary operator lhs and rhs. A binary operator is an operator that takes two operands. The parameter name lhs stands for lefthand side and reminds us that the first parameter represents the lefthand side of the operation. Similarly, rhs stands for righthand side.
To see how this works, you ll create a Fraction class, as described previously. We ll show you the complete listing first, in Example 12-1, and then we ll take it apart and explain what it does.
using using using using System; System.Collections.Generic; System.Linq; System.Text;
namespace Example_12_1_ _ _ _Overloading_Addition { public class Fraction { private int numerator; private int denominator; // create a fraction by passing in the numerator // and denominator public Fraction(int numerator, int denominator) { this.numerator = numerator; this.denominator = denominator; } // overloaded operator + takes two fractions // and returns their sum public static Fraction operator+ (Fraction lhs, Fraction rhs) { // like fractions (shared denominator) can be added // by adding their numerators if (lhs.denominator == rhs.denominator) { return new Fraction(lhs.numerator + rhs.numerator, lhs.denominator); } // simplistic solution for unlike fractions // 1/2 + 3/4 == (1*4) + (3*2) / (2*4) == 10/8 // this method does not reduce.
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int firstProduct = lhs.numerator * rhs.denominator; int secondProduct = rhs.numerator * lhs.denominator; return new Fraction( firstProduct + secondProduct, lhs.denominator * rhs.denominator ); } // return a string representation of the fraction public override string ToString( ) { String s = numerator.ToString( ) + "/" + denominator.ToString( ); return s; } }
public class Tester { public void Run( ) { Fraction firstFraction = new Fraction(3, 4); Console.WriteLine("firstFraction: {0}", firstFraction.ToString( )); Fraction secondFraction = new Fraction(2, 4); Console.WriteLine("secondFraction: {0}", secondFraction.ToString( )); Fraction sumOfTwoFractions = firstFraction + secondFraction; Console.WriteLine( "firstFraction + secondFraction = sumOfTwoFractions: {0}", sumOfTwoFractions.ToString( )); } static void Main( ) { Tester t = new Tester( ); t.Run( ); } } }
The output looks like this:
firstFraction: 3/4 secondFraction: 2/4 firstFraction + secondFraction = sumOfTwoFractions: 5/4
Let s take this one step at a time, so you can see how this class works. In Example 12-1, you start by creating a Fraction class. The private member data is the numerator and denominator, stored as integers:
public class Fraction { private int numerator; private int denominator;
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