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C.3.6 File system
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The Macintosh s original file system Macintosh File System (MFS) was flat. In 1985, Hierarchical File System (HFS) replaced MFS. System 8.1 introduced HFS+, which contains many extensions to HFS. Among other things, it increased the number of files possible by adding more allocation blocks, and added support for longer filenames and international filenames.
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C.3.7 Macintosh files
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One of the unique innovations of the Macintosh team was the design and structure of a Macintosh file. Macintosh files are organized into two components called forks:
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The data fork is composed of the data component of the file. The resource fork contains elements called resources such as strings, sounds, icons, and runtime memory requirements.
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This separation minimizes coupling between related program components and, in some cases, eliminates the need for recompiling a program if a resource element changes. For example, imagine you are developing an application and are implementing error-handling routines. Commonly, programmers hardcode error strings into the application code. If you decide to change an error message, you must recompile the program. File forks change this scenario. Instead, you add error strings to the resource fork within the string resource. Now, if an error message changes, it is independent of the program code no recompilation is required. Figure C.4 shows a typical resource fork for an application.
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APPENDIX C
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The precursor of Mac OS X: Mac OS
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Figure C.4 An application s resource fork, like the SimpleText editor, is composed of many resources that collectively form an application.
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A creator code and a type code identify Macintosh files. The creator code identifies the program that created the file. For example, files created by BBEdit have the creator code R*ch. When you double-click on a BBEdit document in the Finder, the application that created it (BBEdit) is loaded and used to open the file. Compare this process with UNIX, where, by design, files are viewed as a sequence of bytes; the file creator and type are deduced by the files extension or, in the case of some binary files, by the first few bytes of the file. The type code specifies the type or kind of file and can help an application determine how the information in a file is structured. A BBEdit file has the type code TEXT. Creator and type codes are meta-information stored in the file system itself.
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C.3.8 Graphics
QuickDraw is the fundamental graphics display system for the Macintosh; it s used to perform screen-related graphics operations. Originally, QuickDraw supported only black and white; over the years it has evolved to include support for color operations as well. Programs use QuickDraw to draw lines and geometric shapes and perform off-screen drawing as well as other screen-related operations. In addition, the Menu and Window Managers use QuickDraw to draw menu and window objects.
Mac OS system components
C.3.9 Networking
Mac OS supports networking through AppleTalk, MacTCP, and the Open Transport API. AppleTalk enables computers connected on an AppleTalk network to communicate by sending and receiving data with one another. The AppleTalk protocol stack, like TCP, is arranged in a hierarchy that is similar to the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. MacTCP is an implementation of the TCP protocol stack for the Macintosh. Both AppleTalk and MacTCP export an API so clients can access their services. Open Transport supplants, and supports, both AppleTalk and MacTCP by providing a single set of routines offering transport independence. Effectively, you use the Open Transport API to access the underlying protocol TCP, UDP, AppleTalk, or another protocol. UNIX primarily supports network-based communication through BSD sockets and the TCP, UDP, and IP protocols. The Macintosh does not support the BSD socket interface; instead, it uses platform-specific Open Transport.
A brief history of UNIX
APPENDIX D
A brief history of UNIX
The origin of the UNIX1 operating system can be traced to the time-sharing systems proposed and developed at MIT beginning in the mid-1950s.2 To provide the necessary historical perspective, I ll begin with a brief history of computing and computer operating systems from the 1950s to the inception of UNIX. Against this backdrop, a clear picture of the foundations of the Mac OS X emerges.
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