excel qr codes A brief history of UNIX in Objective-C

Creation QR Code ISO/IEC18004 in Objective-C A brief history of UNIX

APPENDIX D
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A brief history of UNIX
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MULTICS had ambitious goals and pioneered many of the features that were to
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become standard in future operating systems, including the hierarchical file system, virtual memory management, a separate program for command processing (called the shell), security, and dynamic linking. However, MULTICS suffered excessive scheduling delays, leaving many of these projects goals unreached. This was largely due to the difficulty of delivering reliable software for such complicated systems and the contrasting, and often conflicting, goals of the parties involved (Pierce 1985, 59). In April 1969, Bell Labs withdrew from the MULTICS project and, through the efforts of Ken Thompson (and later Dennis Ritchie and others) begin working on an alternative operating system, (See Pierce 1985, 59 and http:// www.multicians.org/unix.html for a discussion of Bell Labs withdrawal from the MULTICS project.) In addition to the groups at MIT, other academic groups were developing and experimenting with time-sharing systems (see http://www.multicians.org/ general.html). Among these was a group at the University of Michigan s computing center, which developed the Michigan Terminal System (MTS). A significant development came from the MTS system: a technique called virtual storage; discussed in the paper Program and Addressing Structure in a Time-Sharing Environment (Arden, Galler, O Brien, Westervelt, 1966). This work came from collaboration between researchers at the University of Michigan and MIT (see http://www.clock.org/~jss/work/mts/index.html and Galler, 2001).
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D.2 The birth and development of UNIX
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The etymologies of the UNIX operating system have been extensively documented. This section concentrates on the major technical characteristic of UNIX; for more detailed information on other aspects of its history, see the Resources section at the end of this book. UNIX development began at Bell Labs in 1969 by Ken Thompson and, later, Dennis Ritchie, Joe Ossanna, and Rudd Canaday. The original development was on a PDP-7 computer; in 1971, it moved to the PDP-11. According to Ritchie:
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Thompson wanted to create a comfortable computing environment constructed according to his own design, using whatever means were available. His plans, it is evident in retrospect, incorporated many of the innovative aspects of Multics, including an explicit notion of a process as a locus of control, a tree-structured file system, a command interpreter as user-level program, simple representation of text files, and generalized access to devices. They excluded others, such as
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The birth and development of UNIX
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unified access to memory and to files. At the start, moreover, he and the rest of us deferred another pioneering (though not original) element of Multics, namely writing almost exclusively in a higher-level language. PL/I, the implementation language of Multics, was not much to our tastes, but we were also using other languages, including BCPL, and we regretted losing the advantages of writing programs in a language above the level of assembler, such as ease of writing and clarity of understanding. At the time we did not put much weight on portability; interest in this arose later. (Ritchie 1993, 2)
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By the end of 1971, three users within Bell Labs were running UNIX. UNIX was first described at the Operating Systems Principles Conference (Ritchie 1985, 28) in 1973.8 A development group was created within Bell Labs to support UNIX, and that group began supporting and developing commercial versions of UNIX (System III/System V) in 1982. (See http://perso.wanadoo.fr/levenez/unix and http:// minnie.tuhs.org/TUHS/Images/unixtimeline.gif for diagrams of UNIX releases.) Many of the technical features embodied in UNIX were evolutionary, but some were truly groundbreaking. One of these was the reimplementation of the UNIX kernel in C, which constituted a major event in the history of operating systems. Up until this time, operating systems were written in assembly language, causing them to be strongly coupled to specific hardware architectures. With the advent of C, it was now possible to write an operating system kernel in a high-level language. Consequently, the operating system was loosely coupled to the hardware on which it ran, and could be easily ported to other hardware architectures. This feature significantly contributed to the popularity of UNIX. Traditionally, there were two main lines of UNIX releases: the Bell Labs research versions, which led to the commercial releases of System V Release 4 (SVR[N]); and versions from the University of California at Berkeley (BSD). Over the past several years, many free UNIX-like operating systems have emerged, including Minix, Linux, FreeBSD, and OpenBSD. Tables D.1 through D.3 highlight the technical features of various UNIX releases between 1971 and 1990.9
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This resulted in the seminal ACM paper on UNIX (Ritchie, Thompson 1974). These tables were collected from the following sources: Pate 1996, 3 5; DiBona, Ockman, Stone 1999, 31 46; Stevens 1990, 11 13; The UNIX FAQ, 6/7.
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