excel qr code vba Navigating and using Mac OS X in Objective-C

Encoder QR in Objective-C Navigating and using Mac OS X

Navigating and using Mac OS X
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Figure 2.3 Dragging a folder to the Terminal window is an easy way to copy long path names with no typing.
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2.3 Help system
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UNIX traditionally uses manual pages, or man pages, to document commands and tools. To view man pages, set the man path environment variable (MANPATH) to the location of your system s man pages, and the PAGER variable to the program you want to filter the pages (typically, more or less). In practice, the PAGER variable
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lets you specify the command or program that will display the man page. For example, if you set PAGER to emacs, the system will display man pages within the emacs editor. If you set it to the cat command (which writes a file to standard output), the system will send the man page to the cat command. The more and less commands are common choices, because they enable you to view a man page one screen at a time. The man program takes one argument (the command name to look up); it finds the corresponding documentation file, runs the file through nroff, and pipes its output through the more command (nroff, and its supporting utilities, are used to format text files). As you would expect, the man command is available under Mac OS X for getting help on UNIX commands.
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User accounts and privileges
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2.3.1 Help Viewer
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To get help on Mac OS X applications, you use the Apple Help Viewer (see figure 2.4), which you access from a Mac OS X program s Help menu. Mac OS X programs implement the Help menu as the rightmost Application menu and use the help system to present program information to the user. Most Mac OS X programs (Cocoa, Carbon, and Java) provide help in this manner, rather then using man pages. This is true of any GUI program written for Mac OS X, as well as GUI programs included with the OS.
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Figure 2.4 Mac OS X applications include online help through Apple Help Viewer.
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2.4 User accounts and privileges
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On a UNIX system, there are two types of users: those with root privileges and those without. By going root, you have full access to every aspect of a UNIX system and can roam the system at will, installing software in privileged locations, updating system configuration files, and deleting any file you wish. Basically, you are free to make the system hum along but you can easily take it to its knees with a misplaced command. Apple recognized that a middle ground exists between user and root privileges, so it introduced new administrator privileges. Users with administrator privileges have all the rights of a normal user but can also install new programs, create directories outside the home directory, and add new users to the system. However, you can t do some things with administrator privileges, such as manipulate the System Folder, view the contents of another user s directory, or edit many system configuration files. For these operations, you still need root access.
Navigating and using Mac OS X
Because Mac OS X is first a consumer operating system, Apple naturally discourages users from obtaining root access; toward this end, the root account is disabled, to protect inexperienced users from clobbering their system. However, if you plan to do any work that involves tuning the system, configuring system services, or general hacking, root is a must.
2.4.1 Creating user accounts
You create user accounts from the System Preference application (available from the Dock or within /Applications), using the Users pane (see figure 2.5). When you create a user, you can assign normal privileges or administrator privileges, but not root. There are two primary ways to permit root privileges under Mac OS X: by using the sudo ( soo-doo ) command and by directly enabling the root account.
Figure 2.5 You add users to the system and assign administrator privileges using the System Preference program s Users pane.
The sudo command The sudo command lets a user execute a command as root. Only certain users can use this command, and only certain commands can be run; these are defined as configuration parameters and stored in /etc/sudoers. Mac OS X installs the sudo program as part of the default load and permits users with administrator privileges to use the command. You can use the command two ways. First, you can add the prefix sudo to the command you wish to run as root. The following example shows the result of a command run first as a regular user and then as root, using the sudo command:
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