qr code excel freeware Apple s command-line development tools in Objective-C

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Apple s command-line development tools
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Output of the gprof program for the SlowServer implementation
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Output of the gprof program for the FastServer implementation
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Although doing so is like comparing apples to oranges, it will give you a feel for how these tools differ and how to use them together to solve certain problems. For more information, see gprof s man page, as well as its GNU documentation.
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4.6.5 leaks: searching a process s memory for unreferenced malloc buffers
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The Mac OS X development tools provide several programs you can use to detect memory leaks in your application. A memory leak occurs when you allocate memory within a program and never free it. The command-line tool called leaks performs a similar role as the GUI-based profiling tools discussed earlier in the chapter: detecting malloc-allocated memory locations where your program has lost the pointer to the allocated memory, causing a memory leak. The leaks command takes one argument, the pid of the process you wish to examine. Let s look at a simple example. The LeaksExample project implements a simple example of a memory leak. Open this project in Project Builder and build and run the program. You will see several logging messages in the output window followed by the program displaying a window. While the program is still running, get its process ID from the output window and run the following command in a shell (you must be user root or have root privileges to run the leaks command):
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% leaks 11786 Process 11786: 7424 nodes malloced Process 11786: 7 leaks Leak: 0x0008fda0 size=46 0x80813ff0 0x80813ae0 0x80813ffc 0x0008fd00 0x00091ef0 0x00091f70 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 Leak: 0x0008fcd0 size=46 instance 0x00058610 0x00010395 0x00000003 0x00000004 0xa1b1c1d3 0xa1b1c1d5 0x0008fda0 0x0008fdb0 0x00000000 Leak: 0x0007f340 size=46 0x00530068 0x006f0075 0x006c0064 0x006f0074 0x00200073 0x00650065 0x0065002e 0x00000000 0x00000000 Leak: 0x0007f040 size=46 0x00530068 0x006f0075 0x006c0064 0x006f0074 0x00200073 0x00650065 0x0065002e 0x00000000 0x00000000 Leak: 0x0008fcb0 size=30 instance 0x808190bc 0x00082850 0x0008fcd0 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 Leak: 0x0007f370 size=30 instance 0x80160880 0x000107f0 0x0007f340 0x0007f2b0 0x00000000 0x00000000 Leak: 0x0007f320 size=30 instance 0x80160880 0x000107f0 0x0007f040 0x0007f2b0 0x00000000 0x00000000
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0xa1b1c1d3 0x00000000 of 'NSCFDictionary' 0x00000003 0x00000000
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0x0020006e 0x0020006d
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0x0020006e 0x0020006d of 'NSUserDefaults' 0x0008e980 of 'NSCFString' 0x00000012 of 'NSCFString' 0x00000012
As you can see, the leaks command detects that the program contains memory leaks and provides you with information about their locations. Let s look at the format of the information using the last record in the display (italicized in the code). The first line lists the address of the leaked memory block, its size (in bytes), and the source (in this case, an instance of the NSCFString class). The next series of lines shows the contents of the allocated memory buffer in hexadecimal. You can use the nocontext option to suppress displaying the allocated memory contents:
% leaks -nocontext 11786 Process 11786: 7424 nodes malloced Process 11786: 7 leaks Leak: 0x0008fda0 size=46 Leak: 0x0008fcd0 size=46 instance Leak: 0x0007f340 size=46 Leak: 0x0007f040 size=46 Leak: 0x0008fcb0 size=30 instance Leak: 0x0007f370 size=30 instance Leak: 0x0007f320 size=30 instance
of 'NSCFDictionary'
of 'NSUserDefaults' of 'NSCFString' of 'NSCFString'
This information should give you a good idea where your program is leaking.
Apple s command-line development tools
4.6.6 heap: listing all the malloc-allocated buffers in the process s heap
The heap command is a experimental BSD tools that displays memory objects, including Objective-C objects, allocated on the heap of the specified process. You run the command, passing it the pid of the program you wish to monitor. The following listing shows a condensed example of heap s output:
% heap [pid] % sudo heap 3186 | more Process 3186: 6 zones Zone CoreGraphicsDefaultZone_0x1671d0: Overall size: 256KB; 278 nodes malloced for 48KB (18% of capacity); largest unused: [0x001 7331e-207KB] Zone kCFAllocatorNull_0x701e6944: Overall size: 0KB Zone kCFAllocatorMalloc_0x701e6914: Overall size: 0KB Zone DefaultMallocZone_0x11f1d0: Overall size: 852KB; 6849 nodes malloced for 618KB (72% of capacity); largest unused: [0x01eed88 e-205KB] Zone Custom CFAllocator_0x701e698c: Overall size: 0KB Zone kCFAllocatorSystemDefault_0x701e6928: Overall size: 0KB All zones: 7127 nodes malloced - 666KB -------------------------------------------------------------------Zone DefaultMallocZone_0x11f1d0: 6849 nodes (632582 bytes) <not Objective C object> = 6424 (613064 bytes) NSMenuItem = 52 (4056 bytes) NSDynamicSystemColor = 29 (870 bytes) NSImage = 21 (630 bytes) NSBitmapImageRep = 20 (1240 bytes) NSMethodSignature = 20 (2280 bytes) NSPathStore2 = 15 (1474 bytes) NSMenu = 10 (300 bytes) NSCarbonMenuImpl = 10 (140 bytes) NSCachedWhiteColor = 9 (126 bytes) NSDistantObject = 3 (74 bytes) NSConcreteMutableData = 3 (90 bytes) NSWindowGraphicsContext = 3 (74 bytes) NSBundle = 2 (92 bytes) NSView = 2 (188 bytes)
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